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   Technology StocksInfinera

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From: FJB3/4/2021 3:36:57 PM
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Rod Hall -- Goldman Sachs -- Analyst

Okay. Thanks for that. And then on my follow-up, I wanted to just ask competitively. I know that Infinera has talked about a couple of 800 gig wins, you guys obviously have a whole lot more. I wonder -- are you seeing them in the market with 800 gig? Can you just talk a little bit about the 800-gig competitive environment as it stands right now?

Scott McFeely -- Senior Vice President, Global Products and Services

Yes, Rod, good morning. as we said in the press release, we're up to, I think, it was at the end of the quarter, 78, 79 customer wins. Since the end of the quarter, that's actually increased. By the way, 18, I think, of those 79 were brand-new logos to Ciena. So a lot of momentum there.

Last I checked, a few weeks ago, that equated to something like 7,500 units shipped to customers. So as far as I know, we are the only commercially available 800 gig solution in the marketplace, and you can see it in those statistics.

Rod Hall -- Goldman Sachs -- Analyst

Do you guys think that these are just lab deployments then that these guys are talking about?

Scott McFeely -- Senior Vice President, Global Products and Services

7,500 units, a lot of labs. So all the other competitors, I don't know. If you have to ask them. I should -- probably that's my only comment on that.

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From: FJB3/5/2021 1:12:03 PM
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NeoPhotonics to Host Call to Discuss Optical Communications Trends and Technologies on March 10, 2021

Fri, March 5, 2021, 11:00 AM·2 min read

NeoPhotonics Corporation (NYSE: NPTN), a leading developer of silicon photonics and advanced hybrid photonic integrated circuit-based lasers, modules and subsystems for bandwidth-intensive, high speed communications networks, today announced management will host a conference call to discuss trends in optical communications and related technologies on Wednesday, March 10, 2021 at 11:00 am ET.

The session will focus on industry trends and on NeoPhotonics’ product and technology differentiation addressing important issues for the introduction and growth of 400Gbps Pluggable Modules for DCI to Long Haul Applications. That is, for 400ZR and Speed Over Distance, as distance or reach extends, the range of applications that will benefit from IP over DWDM architectures in optical networks increases. This webinar will showcase NeoPhotonics 400ZR and 400ZR+ solutions and illustrate the technologies required for these demanding applications.

The event will be hosted by:

Tim Jenks, Chairman and CEO
Ferris Lipscomb, Ph.D., VP of Marketing
Wupen Yuen, Ph.D., SVP and Chief Product Officer
Winston Way, Ph.D., CTO

To listen to the live webcast, please visit A replay of the event will be available approximately one hour following the event at

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From: FJB3/6/2021 12:29:03 AM
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Virgin Media tests Infinera’s XR optics on PON infrastructure
Stephen Hardy

Infinera (NASDAQ: INFN) has announced a second major trial of its point-to-multipoint XR optics technology in the UK. Following a demonstration with BT (see “BT models, lab trials Infinera’s XR optics”), the company has revealed a trial with Virgin Media that saw XR optics applied to a PON infrastructure in Reading, UK. The results indicated the ability to support symmetrical transmission rates as high as 400 Gbps over the fiber to the premises (FTTP) network, Infinera says.

The XR optics concept, introduced in the fall of 2019 and still in the prototype phase, leverages the ability to share the capacity of a single coherent port among multiple endpoints (see “Infinera unveils XR optics single-source coherent point-to-multipoint transmission technology”). As a PON infrastructure works along somewhat similar principles, XR optics would appear to be a natural fit for such networks.

Virgin Media has been willing to trial a variety of technologies to boost the capacity of its PONs; for example, the company trialed 10G PON in 2019 with ARRIS (now part of CommScope; see “Virgin Media trials 10G-EPON with ARRIS”). “Our next-generation network already offers gigabit connectivity to more than 7 million homes, but with data use and demand for hyperfast speeds surging, we’re continually investing in our network to prepare for whatever the future brings,” commented Jeanie York, chief technology and information officer at Virgin Media. “Innovations like XR optics ensure our customers continue to benefit from the UK’s fastest widely available speeds, pave the way for future network upgrades, and help support the rollout of multi-gigabit broadband and mobile services.”

“The trial with Virgin Media provides a solid proof point that Infinera’s XR optics technology can be seamlessly applied to existing networks,” added Dave Welch, Infinera’s chief innovation officer and co-founder. “This represents a radical shift in the way networks can be built, promising a more flexible and sustainable way to meet the ever increasing need to transmit more data at higher speeds.”

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From: SGJ3/11/2021 4:51:38 PM
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EllaLink Completes Marine Installation and Turns to Infinera for Network Lighting

Using ICE6-800g to light it. Lit the fuse today, up 7.34%. What investors have been waiting for.

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To: FJB who wrote (4311)3/30/2021 7:13:49 AM
From: FJB
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Trends and Technology: 400G Pluggable Modules for DCI to Long Haul Applications

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From: FJB4/3/2021 6:26:13 PM
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An App for Network Navigation – Welcome to PCE -

6-7 minutes

In times when customer satisfaction and business agility are critical to network operators, the ability to fulfill service requests fast, keep to service-level agreements, and accelerate revenue by quickly delivering new and more services is key.

But service fulfillment in an optical transport network – that is, the activation of new digital services that may also involve the planning and provisioning of a new wavelength – is not as simple and painless as we would like. Traditionally, this is a slow, costly, and error-prone process, involving a few iterations between:

  • The operator’s network planning and design team, which will define the service requirements
  • The network infrastructure vendor’s network planning services team, which will use an expert-only offline network planning tool to compute alternative routes
  • The operator’s network operations team, which will deploy the final service in the field
This approach doesn’t quite meet the needs of today’s network operations and dynamic traffic patterns, where adding or changing services effectively and in real time is increasingly relevant.

When looking for service path computation in a large transport network, we want quick response and we want to be able to define the path-finding criteria and ensure that the resulting path meets all service-level agreement parameters.

Additionally, we want to be able to find and provision optimal end-to-end routes across different equipment types and multiple technologies in a simple and seamless manner, a known limitation of most distributed control planes, where routing information across different network layers is not shared.

Hero to the rescue: the path computation element A path computation element (PCE, as defined in IETF RFC 4655) is the way to address our needs. A PCE is an application that utilizes abstracted network topology and connectivity to compute a constrained path between two endpoints.

This type of context-optimized path determination offers increased flexibility and effectiveness in service routing, as it considers not only user-defined weights and constraints such as latency, modulation format, link utilization, shared risk link groups, etc., but also live network conditions – pretty much like a Google Maps navigation app for the network.

By complementing the PCE application with a provisioning engine that automates configuration of the resources in the network, the outcome is exactly what we are looking for: simple, fast, and reliable service fulfillment.

But what about multi-domain path computation? In addition to the benefits above, a centralized PCE implementation offers the potential to consolidate multiple domains and network layers into a global network view, resulting in improved scalability and network-wide efficient resource usage.

Multi-domain path computation can be achieved with a hierarchical path computation element architecture. In this architecture, there is one parent PCE and multiple child PCEs, each responsible for a subdomain, as represented in Figure 1. All paths within a subdomain are computed by a child PCE, which has only information pertaining to its specific domain. The parent PCE maintains only high-level information about each subdomain but is fully knowledgeable of the connectivity between them. The parent PCE is able to perform centralized end-to-end path computation by orchestrating the subdomains, and it associates and coordinates the topology information and routing capabilities of the multiple child PCEs.

Figure 1: Hierarchical PCE

A service that reaches its destination Some requests for new digital services over an optical transport network will run against fully utilized wavelengths, requiring that new wavelengths be lit in the network. However, the transmission of a new wavelength along a chosen path is subject to optical impairments that need to be assessed ahead of provisioning.

That should not be an issue for a powerful PCE. A PCE should be capable of interfacing with an optical performance application that models transmission in the fiber layer and validates the optical feasibility of a path. In some cases, that optical validation may not even need the superior accuracy provided by a detailed optical transmission simulation – a summary of optical performance may be enough. For simplified operation, the PCE may simply store a set of feasible optical paths between each node pair, including the information on which wavelengths are valid for a given path and modulation format, previously checked by an offline planning tool.

It goes without saying that PCE and service provisioning applications can also be used as a basis for more complex automation tasks and network programming. One example is closed-loop automation processes, where events or patterns observed in the network trigger automated actions in the same network, such as service rerouting upon failure or in anticipation of it, increasing network availability. Choosing applications that provide support for open APIs ensures they can be smoothly integrated into any network operator’s software automation environment.

The value of an intelligent path computation element and service provisioning software application is crystal clear. Best-in-class PCE and service provisioning applications, such as Infinera’s Transcend path computation element and service provisioning application, offer benefits including:

  • Accelerated new service activation
  • Accelerated time to revenue
  • The elimination of operational errors
  • Reduced operational expense
  • Improved end-user experience
  • Maximized network utilization
And all this by simply enabling superior network navigation!

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To: FJB who wrote (4315)4/3/2021 6:29:19 PM
From: FJB
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From: FJB4/5/2021 3:00:37 PM
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From: FJB4/7/2021 11:12:56 AM
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Cosmic rays causing 30,000 network malfunctions in Japan each year - The Mainichi

This file photo taken on Sep. 29, 2020, shows the building that houses Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. in Tokyo. (Kyodo)
TOKYO (Kyodo) -- Cosmic rays are causing an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 malfunctions in domestic network communication devices in Japan every year, a Japanese telecom giant found recently.

Most so-called "soft errors," or temporary malfunctions, in the network hardware of Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. are automatically corrected via safety devices, but experts said in some cases they may have led to disruptions.

It is the first time the actual scale of soft errors in domestic information infrastructures has become evident.

Soft errors occur when the data in an electronic device is corrupted after neutrons, produced when cosmic rays hit oxygen and nitrogen in the earth's atmosphere, collide with the semiconductors within the equipment.

Cases of soft errors have increased as electronic devices with small and high-performance semiconductors have become more common. Temporary malfunctions have sometimes led to computers and phones freezing, and have been regarded as the cause of some plane accidents abroad.

Masanori Hashimoto, professor at Osaka University's Graduate School of Information Science and Technology and an expert in soft errors, said the malfunctions have actually affected other network communication devices and electrical machineries at factories in and outside Japan.

There is a chance that "greater issues" will arise as society's infrastructure becomes "more reliant on electronic devices" that use such technologies as artificial intelligence and automated driving, Hashimoto said.

He emphasized the need for the government and businesses to further research and implement countermeasures.

However, identifying the cause of soft errors and implementing measures against them can be difficult due to them not being reproducible in trials, unlike mechanical failures.

NTT therefore measured the frequency of soft errors through an experiment whereby semiconductors are exposed to neutrons, and concluded there are about 100 errors per day in its domestic servers.

Although NTT did not reveal if network communication disruptions have actually occurred, the company said it was "implementing measures against major issues" and "confirming the quality of the safety devices and equipment design through experiments and presumptions."

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From: FJB4/8/2021 1:17:28 PM
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Will the Stars Align for 5G Ultra Low-latency Services?

- /blog/will-the-stars-align-for-5g-ultra-low-latency-services/tag/mobile-and-5g/

5G network deployments are well underway across the globe, with many network operators now preparing for the more advanced “Phase 2” 5G services such as ultra-reliable low-latency communications (uRLLC) services. Key to enabling these advanced services is advanced radio access network (RAN) capabilities that push advanced features and performance requirements, such as significantly improved synchronization delivery to the cell tower, on to the underlying transport network.

At Infinera we’ve seen a distinct shift over recent months in network operators’ focus on synchronization distribution strategies and underlying network synchronization performance. In the first in a series of blogs covering this important topic, we’ll look at how the migration to 5G is changing network operators’ usage of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) within these networks.

The delivery of synchronization information in mobile networks is achievable through several different mechanisms and strategies. The uptake of these various options has varied across the geographic regions of the globe due to technical and geopolitical reasons. The main synchronization delivery options are:

  • Synchronization/timing signals from a GNSS, such as the U.S.’s Global Positioning System (GPS), Europe’s Galileo, Russia’s Global’naya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS), or China’s BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, directly to every location requiring synchronization in the network
  • Synchronization/timing signals delivered from key centralized GNSS-enabled locations in the network through the backhaul/transport network to all other locations requiring synchronization
  • Synchronization/timing signals delivered through a totally separate synchronization delivery network
Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses, and operators across the globe have built synchronization strategies to best suit their own environments. For example, historically GNSS using GPS to every location has been the primary mechanism in North America, whereas Europe predominantly uses synchronization through the backhaul network with GNSS limited to key timing locations.

However, in recent years there has been an increase in the incidence of both deliberate and inadvertent hacking and jamming of GNSS as the use of cheap illegal GNSS jammers has increased and as some countries have even tested GNSS jamming and/or spoofing as part of military strategies. Due to the importance of network synchronization, these factors are leading some countries to introduce legislation to force protection and reliability into synchronization networks. It is possible to protect GNSS receivers from some of this jamming, but this greatly increases the cost per node.

Another consideration that mobile network operators must take into account as they move to 5G is the proliferation of cell sites, especially those in locations that are tough to reach from a GNSS perspective. 5G in dense urban environments will require millimeter-wave small cells that provide high-bandwidth connectivity over a shorter range, and operators are planning deployments of these in tough-to-reach locations such as deep inside shopping malls, cells per floor in high-rise office buildings, etc.

It should be stressed that while GNSS networks do occasionally suffer from interference and downtime caused by natural effects or deliberate jamming/spoofing, they are still highly reliable and form a key component of most synchronization networks. There are solutions to protect GNSS and deliver GNSS signals into tough locations, but overall, these factors are causing more and more operators that were previously GNSS-focused to plan to utilize network-based synchronization as a backup to GNSS at every node. In some cases, these operators plan to migrate fully to network-based synchronization, with GNSS limited to key centralized locations in the network that use these protection and resiliency methods to harden GNSS against attacks.

Network-based synchronization can take the form of either synchronization delivery through the transport network or through a totally separate dedicated synchronization delivery network. Both approaches provide the operator with the right level of synchronization performance, and backhaul network-based synchronization offers the opportunity for significantly better overall network economics as it avoids a complete overlay network for synchronization. Wherever possible, mobile network operators typically utilize backhaul-based synchronization delivery, but it should be noted that this is not always possible, and therefore, synchronization overlay networks cannot be discounted from the discussion.

Overall, there will always be a mix of strategies deployed across the globe, but the trend is moving more and more toward network-based synchronization delivery, and due to better economics, transporting this over the backhaul network is nearly always the primary option. Those network operators that have always deployed synchronization distribution through the transport network, and those now migrating to this strategy, need to now consider how their optical transport network can best support these challenging requirements economically.

For those readers that want to dive into this topic in more detail, our new Synchronization Distribution in 5G Transport Networks e-book provides a detailed overview of synchronization distribution challenges and standardization along with an end-to-end synchronization distribution strategy that meets the demanding requirements that 5G is driving into optical networks. I’m also presenting at this year’s Workshop on Synchronization and Timing Systems (WSTS) virtual event on March 30. I’ll be outlining how we can provide 5G-quality synchronization with optical timing channel-enabled in real-world networks. I hope those interested in 5G synchronization distribution can join me at this event. You can register here.

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