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   Gold/Mining/EnergyRare Earth Elements and Exotic Metals

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To: LoneClone who wrote (15876)5/10/2019 7:03:35 PM
From: LoneClone
   of 17066
Potential Tungsten Shortage Imminent: Roskill

Georgia Williams - May 6th, 2019

Global mine production of the critical metal slipped in 2018 from 82,100 MT to 82,000 MT despite demand growing by 5 percent year-over-year.

Stricter environmental regulations in China coupled with depleting mine supply may create a tungsten deficit if new mines and projects aren’t brought online in the coming years, research firm Roskill says in a recent report.

Global mine production of the critical metal slipped in 2018 from 82,100 metric tons (MT) to 82,000 MT despite demand growing by 5 percent year-over-year.

Crackdowns on storage heaps in Jiangxi, Hunan and Fujian — China’s largest tungsten-producing regions — forced some producers offline until their projects were deemed compliant with government environmental regulations.

Ecological concerns aren’t the only issues plaguing Chinese tungsten producers. As mines mature, the quality of their output declines. If output is cut or reduced in China, there are few countries ready to ramp up production in order to offset a shortage.

“We expect Russian production to increase in the short term,” Jessica Roberts, copper and technology metals manager at Roskill, told the Investing News Network.

“Although, ultimately, many of the country’s established tungsten mines have the same issue as the older Chinese mines in that they face depleting ore grades and will likely come offline, meaning new mines will need to be developed over the next several years.”

Roberts noted that Vietnam, the second largest producer outside of China, also faces issues with its mine supply. In 2017, the country produced 6,600 MT of tungsten, but that number dropped in 2018 to 6,000 MT and is likely to not grow.

“Vietnam’s leading tungsten producer, Masan Resources, is already at full capacity and is increasingly buying in concentrate from third parties to enable it to raise output from its tungsten chemicals plant. All of this points towards new mines needing to be developed,” said Roberts.

While the uncertainty may not be beneficial for end users, it will undoubtedly be good news for the tungsten price, which hit a four year high in June 2018 of US$350 per MT unit as a result of Chinese smelters coming offline.

Following restarts in China, the price trended lower for the remainder of the year and hit US$275 in January, where it sits presently.

“The APT (ammonium paratungsten) price has been very stable in 2019 so far,” Roberts said. However, there are a number of factors that could drive the price higher for the rest of 2019.

For Roberts, some of the factors to watch include how quickly new mine projects at La Parrilla and Barruecopardo can ramp up and whether any of the APT stocks in Fanya are released to the market in 2019. In addition, a resolution to trade discussions between China and the US in the coming months is another key catalyst that could impact prices going forward.

Tungsten uses in the automotive and aerospace sectors have grown over the last few years and are expected to continue — add to this the traditional uses of the metal and it’s easy to see where a deficit may materialize.

“There is a large and stable demand base for tungsten in the tools sector — primarily for cemented carbide tools, but also other tool materials, like high-speed steels — directly related to manufacturing activity,” noted Roberts. “Machining of automotive components is a large market for tungsten-containing tools.”

Roberts foresees moderate price growth throughout 2019 if the following conditions are met.

“Assuming the new mines in Spain come online as planned and there is a positive outcome between China and the US, we would expect to see a slight increase in the APT price towards the end of Q2 and into Q3, before a decrease again in Q4 as seasonal factors come into play.”

Don’t forget to follow us @INN_Resource for real-time updates!

Securities Disclosure: I, Georgia Williams, hold no direct investment interest in any company mentioned in this article.

Editorial Disclosure: The Investing News Network does not guarantee the accuracy or thoroughness of the information reported in the interviews it conducts. The opinions expressed in these interviews do not reflect the opinions of the Investing News Network and do not constitute investment advice. All readers are encouraged to perform their own due diligence.

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To: LoneClone who wrote (15877)5/10/2019 7:05:01 PM
From: LoneClone
   of 17066
Vanadium: Bushveld Minerals to acquire Vanchem Vanadium Products assets

Posted on 7th May 2019 in General News.

Bushveld Minerals has entered into an agreement with Vanchem Vanadium Products to acquire its vanadium assets in South Africa for US$68M.

Roskill view This is a positive step for Bushveld as it advances towards its publicly stated aim to become a 10ktpy vanadium producer. In the short term, it offers additional output and product diversity. With regard to the former, Vanchem is currently producing roughly 100tpm of vanadium pentoxide from stockpiles at Mapochs. Bushveld suggests that these stocks can last for one year. Regarding the latter, Vanchem (through several entities) can produce chemicals (vanadium trioxide and pentoxide) and ferrovanadium. With Bushveld already producing Nitrovan at Vametco, the company now has a broad suite of products.

In the longer term, Bushveld believes that a US$45M refurbishment could see the facility produce 4.2ktpy of vanadium. This will require more feedstock and it appears that Bushveld has earmarked its (64% owned) Mokopane project as the solution.

Mokopane is 200km away from Vanchem but has reported ore reserves of 29.8Mt from a resource of 298Mt. Plans previously involved a 1Mtpy run-of-mine operation (over 30 years) and a vanadium pentoxide plant producing on average 5.5ktpy V; however, this would have required just shy of US$300M CAPEX.

The Vanchem acquisition has likely reduced the capital requirements for Bushveld to increase its production. Bushveld notes that the lead time for development of basic crushing, mining and screening would be short and CAPEX is estimated by Alternative Resource Capital (of whom it must be noted Bushveld is a broking client) at US$20M. Thus, it is conceivable that Bushveld develops mine and plant for less than US$100M CAPEX.

Roskill’s NEW report, Vanadium: Market Outlook to 2028, was published in March 2019. Click here to download the brochure and sample pages, or to access further information.

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To: LoneClone who wrote (15878)5/10/2019 7:23:09 PM
From: LoneClone
   of 17066
Graphite, fluorspar, batteries: Can anode supply chain meet growth in demand?

Posted on 10th May 2019 in General News.

With rising reagent costs and significant barriers to entry for raw material production outside of China, there remain significant concerns over the ability of the graphite supply chain to meet demand from the growing lithium-ion battery industry.

Graphite is the main key active material used in the anodes of lithium-ion batteries, accounting for around 85–90% of all anode material in 2018. Both natural flake and synthetic graphite are used in this application. Natural flake must first undergo sophisticated processing into ‘spherical graphite’ in order to purify and shape the material so that is can compete with synthetic graphite on carbon grade and to reduce the natural tendency of the flakes to expand.

China currently produces all of the world’s spherical graphite because of the country’s proximity to graphite raw materials and lower cost reagents, as well as lower labour and energy costs than the rest of the world. It has also, traditionally, seen less environmental restrictions which has allowed the development of lower cost production methods including purification with strong acids, notably hydrofluoric acid (HF). These conventional assumptions, however, are being turned on their head.

The price of Chinese HF has risen in recent years with increasing raw material costs. Although the Chinese domestic price fell through 2015 and 2016 to between US$1–1.5/kg, by mid-2017, prices had risen to US$1.5–2/kg. They remain at elevated levels in 2019, with Chinese HF shipments averaging US$1.6/kg in March 2019. There are no published prices for HF so price forecasts are created by Roskill by tracking average values of traded material and then applying tools such as regression analysis using Roskill data on historical trade prices and historical supply/demand trends. The Chinese HF market is still suffering from a lack of acidspar supplies in H1 2019 and operated at much higher utilisation rates than the habitual 50% utilisation rate that had prevailed earlier in the decade.

Meanwhile, the Chinese government is taking an increasingly strong stance on environmental protection, rolling out industry-wide plant inspections and enforced closures until companies can reach new pollution targets. Chinese flake graphite production fell by around a third in 2016 and, despite much of this capacity coming back on-line, has seen further on-going closures with a total of four major rounds of inspections between 2016 and 2017, followed by two ‘look back’ rounds in June and October 2018 to check progress. The June round affected plants in Heilongjiang and the October round plants in Shandong – the centres for flake and spherical graphite production. Further closures seem likely as China’s Ministry of Environmental Protection refuses to weaken its resolve on combating pollution and as the closures have also helped to improve efficiency and profits, especially those of state-owned enterprises.

A number of graphite companies outside of China are looking to develop their own spherical graphite production, many of which are trying to avoid the use of HF with proprietary processing methods based on thermal only techniques or a range of alternative reagents. As yet, none have been able to compete with China on a commercial scale. Many hope that consumers will be willing to pay a premium for spherical graphite produced via more environmentally conscious methods, especially companies supplying so-called ‘green technologies’ such as electric vehicles.

Syrah Resources, the largest natural flake producer outside of China, began production of un-purified spherical graphite in January and is aiming to begin purified production later this year. A number of other companies, not yet in production for natural flake, are also testing spherical graphite processing from material in their deposits and are at various stages of development, as previously reported by Roskill.

Roskill’s NEW Natural & Synthetic Graphite: Outlook to 2028 report will be published in June 2019 and provide insight into supply, demand and price trends over the next decade with focus on battery markets and the current major changes to the synthetic graphite supply chain in China.

Roskill’s NEW Lithium-ion Batteries: Outlook to 2028 report was published in April and analyses the major raw material supply chains for this rapidly growing industry.

Roskill’s Fluorspar: Global Industry, Markets and Outlook to 2022 was published in November 2018.

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To: LoneClone who wrote (15879)5/10/2019 8:20:16 PM
From: LoneClone
   of 17066
Lake Resources (ASX:LKE) Pilot Plant Engineering Underway at Kachi Lithium Project

Lilac Solutions Direct Extraction Plant On-Track to be Operational at Kachi Project Late 2019

Targeting Rapid, Low-Cost Lithium Production with High Recoveries and Minimal Environmental Impact

WW: Company Overview

View in Other Languages

Brisbane, May 7, 2019 AEST (ABN Newswire) - Lithium exploration and project development company Lake Resources NL ( ASX:LKE) announced today the commencement of design and engineering works for the Company's planned pilot plant at its 100% owned Kachi Lithium Brine Project in Argentina. Based on U.S. partner Lilac Solutions' direct extraction production technology, the pilot plant will test the potential for rapid, low-cost production with high recoveries and minimal environmental impact, at a pilot scale, offering a significant competitive advantage.

This follows December's release of a successful Phase 1 Engineering Study conducted by the Silicon Valley-backed Lilac Solutions, with the study showing its direct extraction process has the potential to rapidly produce very high lithium concentrations from Kachi brines with low impurities (refer ASX announcement 10 December 2018).

- First steps towards pilot plant testing with design and engineering underway at Lake's Kachi Lithium Project, Argentina based on high-productivity, high-purity Lilac Solutions direct extraction technology.

- Design and engineering phase expected to take three months. This will then lead to an estimated 3 months of construction, with delivery of the pilot plant on-site at Kachi and commissioning expected in late 2019.

- Pilot plant forms part of pre-feasibility study (PFS), as a precursor to full-scale commercial project offering rapid, low-cost production with minimal environmental impact.

- Phase 1 Engineering Study showed potential for production costs to be in the lowest quartile of global lithium production costs; high lithium concentrations of 30,000 mg/L produced after 3 hours of processing from ~300 mg/L brines, with recoveries of 85-90% confirmed from multiple samples.

Lithium concentrates of 30,000 mg/L have been produced using the Lilac technology in just three hours from Kachi brines, with trials up to 50,000 parts per million (ppm), together with evaporative dewatering. Significantly, high lithium recoveries of 85-90% were obtained compared to the typical 40-50% recoveries using conventional evaporation processes, maximising the resource.

Importantly, the study showed globally competitive production costs of US$2,600/tonne (+/-30%), which is in the lowest cost quartile for lithium carbonate production, using a commercial-sized Lilac Solutions production plant. (Note: The estimated costs of production are preliminary estimates based on the Phase 1 Engineering study.) The lithium concentrate stream could then be processed downstream into battery-grade lithium product using conventional purification technologies (either a conventional lithium carbonate plant or hydroxide plant).

This compares favourably with conventional brine operations in South America, which use evaporation that requires a lengthy 9 to 24 month waiting period for the process to produce a suitable lithium brine concentrate for processing, and have lithium recoveries typically below 50%.

Lilac's extraction technology also offers the potential for reduced environmental impact compared to traditional processes used in Argentina, due to the removal of evaporation ponds. In addition, the remaining brine would be reinjected into the aquifer from which it is sourced without significantly affecting the water quality, thereby preserving an aqueous resource in an arid environment.

Lilac's Chief Executive Officer, David Snydacker said: "We are confident that combining Lilac's high-performance, next-generation lithium extraction technology with the massive lithium resource at Kachi will result in the most modern, efficient, reliable, and environmentally friendly lithium project in the world."

Lake's Managing Director, Steve Promnitz said: "The commencement of the pilot plant process is a milestone event, not only for Lake but also for the lithium industry more broadly, as we work to unlock the benefits of direct extraction technology. By combining cutting-edge Silicon Valley innovation with established mining industry know-how, there is potential for the creation of a sustainable competitive advantage in an industry that is at the centre of a global revolution in energy and transport."

The PFS process for Kachi has already commenced (refer ASX announcement 9 April 2019), under which a leading international engineering firm has been engaged to examine its technical and economic viability, including both conventional and direct extraction methods, project engineering design, product specifications, optimisation of recovery and operating and capital costs.

Lilac has commenced the detailed design and engineering phase of the pilot plant, together with an international engineering firm, which is expected to take approximately three months. This will be followed by the build and transport of the plant to site at Kachi, where it will be installed and commissioned.

The pilot plant is expected to be capable of producing around 10 tonnes per annum of lithium carbonate equivalents. The planned approach is to produce a concentrate of purified lithium brine on-site and then convert it to lithium carbonate and/or lithium hydroxide at a location with more established infrastructure and workforce. Most reagents can be easily sourced locally, and Lilac will provide its proprietary ion exchange media. Based on the current timeline, the plant could be operating in late 2019, expected to be a precursor to a full-scale commercial project.

The Kachi project has an Indicated and Inferred Resource of 4.4 Mt LCE (Indicated 1.0Mt and Inferred 3.4Mt) within a much larger Exploration Target (refer ASX release 27 November 2018), covering some 69,000 hectares over almost an entire lithium-bearing salt lake in Catamarca Province.

Based on market feedback, Lake considers there is potential for Lilac's technological solution to attract support from Silicon Valley-based and/or downstream investors, given Lilac's investor base and the recent U.S. drive to develop its lithium industry. New U.S. legislation aims to speed the development of lithium and other electric vehicle (EV) supply chain minerals, facilitating increased EV output in the United States.

Demand forecasts point to the need for an eight-fold rise in lithium supply over the next nine years, on the back of the EV revolution, battery storage and other applications. With supply from major producers continuing to fall short of projections, new projects and technologies will be essential to support the industry's growth.

Recent merger and acquisition (M&A) activity, both at the corporate level and in projects adjacent to Lake's in Argentina, also points to a bright outlook for the sector as investors re-evaluate its potential.

Lake's Mr Promnitz added: "Lake's Argentina projects are in the heart of the Lithium Triangle, home to half the world's lithium output and at the lowest cost.

"With our Kachi project now gaining momentum with the benefit of an innovative technological process and drilling underway at the Cauchari project (refer ASX announcement 1 May 2019), Lake is entering a significant new phase of its evolution as we work to deliver wealth for shareholders and benefits for all industry stakeholders."

To view figures, please visit:

About Lake Resources NL

Lake Resources NL ( ASX:LKE) is a lithium exploration and development company focused on developing its three lithium brine projects and hard rock project in Argentina, all owned 100%. The leases are in a prime location among the lithium sector's largest players within the Lithium Triangle, where half of the world's lithium is produced. Lake holds one of the largest lithium tenement packages in Argentina (~200,000Ha) secured in 2016 prior to a significant 'rush' by major companies. The large holdings provide the potential to provide consistent security of supply demanded by battery makers and electric vehicle manufacturers.

The Kachi project covers 69,000 ha over a salt lake south of FMC's lithium operation and near Albemarle's Antofalla project in Catamarca Province. Drilling at Kachi has confirmed a large lithium brine bearing basin over 20km long, 15km wide and 400m to 800m deep. Drilling over Kachi (currently 16 drill holes, 3100m) has produced a maiden indicated and inferred resource of 4.4 Mt LCE (Indicated 1.0Mt and Inferred 3.4Mt) within a 8-17 Mt LCE exploration target (refer ASX announcement 27 November 2018).

A direct extraction technique is being tested in partnership with Lilac Solutions, which has shown 80-90% recoveries and lithium brine concentrations in excess of 3000 mg/L lithium and is planned to be trialled on site in tandem with conventional methods as part of a PFS to follow the resource statement. Scope exists to unlock considerable value through partnerships and corporate deals in the near term.

The Olaroz-Cauchari and Paso brine projects are located adjacent to major world class brine projects either in production or being developed in the highly prospective Jujuy Province. The Olaroz-Cauchari project is located in the same basin as Orocobre's Olaroz lithium production and adjoins Ganfeng Lithium/Lithium Americas Cauchari project, with high grade lithium (600 mg/L) with high flow rates drilled immediately across the lease boundary.

Two drill rigs are currently drilling at Cauchari with results anticipated to extend the proven resources in adjoining properties into LKE's area with results anticipated from November into December 2018. This will be followed by drilling extensions to the Olaroz area in LKE's 100% owned Olaroz leases.

Significant corporate transactions continue in adjacent leases with development of Ganfeng Lithium/Lithium Americas Cauchari project with Ganfeng announcing a US$237 million for 37% of the Cauchari project previously held by SQM. Nearby projects of Lithium X were acquired via a takeover offer of C$265 million completed March 2018. The northern half of Galaxy's Sal de Vida resource was purchased for US$280 million by POSCO in June 2018. These transactions imply an acquisition cost of US$55-110 million per 1 million tonnes of lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE) in resources.

The demand for lithium continues to be strong for lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles, according to recent data from the leading independent battery minerals consultant, Benchmark Mineral Intelligence. Supply continues to be constrained suggesting good opportunities for upstream lithium companies.


Steve Promnitz
Managing Director
Lake Resources N.L.
T: +61-2-9188-7864

Link: Pilot Plant Engineering underway at Kachi Lithium Project

Related Companies

Lake Resources NL

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To: LoneClone who wrote (15880)5/10/2019 8:25:56 PM
From: LoneClone
   of 17066
Platina Resources (ASX:PGM) Platina Scandium Project - Mining Lease Application Lodged

WW: Company Overview

Perth, May 9, 2019 AEST (ABN Newswire) - Platina Resources Limited (Platina or the Company) ( ASX:PGM) ( OTCMKTS:PTNUF) is pleased to announce the lodgement of a Mining Lease Application ("MLA") by its wholly owned subsidiary company Red Heart Mines Pty Ltd, as part of the Platina Scandium Project ("PSP"), with the New South Wales Department of Planning and Environment.


- Mining Lease Application for the Platina Scandium Project lodged with New South Wales Department of Planning and Environment

- Application supported by a comprehensive technical study process including, a Definitive Feasibility Study which demonstrated a strong economic case for the project development

- Paves the way for the completion of the permitting process including the continuation of the stakeholder engagement program

The New South Wales mining legislation requires the preparation of a comprehensive MLA as one of the preconditions to the granting of a Mining Lease to conduct mining operations. The Company has been actively working on the technical and environmental studies, stakeholder engagement and consultation to develop a proposal to mine the Red Heart Ore Reserves, and these form the basis of the MLA lodged today - see Figure 1(see link below).

The PSP is the Company's flagship project located in central New South Wales, one of the largest and highest-grade scandium deposits in the world, which has the potential to become Australia's first scandium producer with cobalt, platinum and nickel credits. A DFS was completed in late 2018 demonstrating the technical and economic viability of constructing the project. The positive DFS demonstrates the opportunity to create substantial long-term sustainable shareholder value at a manageable capital cost - see Table 1(see link below).

Commenting on the lodgement of the MLA, Platina Managing Director, Corey Nolan, stated:

"The Platina Scandium Project Mining Lease Application is a significant milestone in the projects development and is supported by a comprehensive Definitive Feasibility Study, environmental studies and stakeholder consultation process in its design. The Company will continue its program of engagement with the local community, councils and State Government as the project moves towards the development stage.

Critical to this pathway, is the continuation of the strong marketing effort to secure offtake for the projects high-purity scandium oxide which will facilitate the securing of project financing".

Next Steps

The next steps for the PSP development include:

- Progressing land holder lease or land purchase negotiations for the mine site properties;

- Preparation of separate Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA's) for the mine site and the Condobolin plant site;

- Preparation of separate Development Applications for the Red Heart Mine site and the Condobolin plant site;

- Progressing marketing activities and negotiating offtake agreements for the scandium oxide production; and

- Raising debt and equity funding to execute the project.

Now that the MLA has been lodged, work has commenced on the preparation of the Development Applications, which require land holder lease or land purchase agreements to be secured at the Red Heart Mine. In addition, the Company is focused on the continuation of its stakeholder engagement program. The program is aimed at securing the Company's licence-to-operate within the communities in which it will operate and includes consultation with landowners and occupiers, communities of Condobolin, Fifield and Tullamore, Lachlan Shire Council, New South Wales Department of Planning and Environment and State politicians.

Stakeholder views have been taken into consideration in respect of the mine and process plant design, planned operations and rehabilitation.

The Company will conserve cash resources and finalise the Environmental Impact Assessments once it is further advanced on offtake negotiations. The Company has commissioned extensive technical and environmental assessments including groundwater, surface water, air quality, traffic, noise, heritage and biodiversity.

To view tables and figures, please visit:

About Platina Resources Limited

Platina Resources Limited ( ASX:PGM) ( OTCMKTS:PTNUF) is an Australian-based exploration and development company focused on precious and specialty metals, particularly platinum group metals ("PGM") and the strategic metal scandium.

The PSP is the Company's flagship project located in central New South Wales, one of the largest and highest-grade scandium deposits in the world, which has the potential to become Australia's first scandium producer with cobalt, platinum and nickel credits. A Definitive Feasibility Study was completed in late 2018 demonstrating the technical and economic viability of constructing the project. The Company is now focused on completing the permitting and securing offtake and financing.

The Company also has interests in two gold-platinum group metal projects, including:

- Skaergaard (100% interest) - One of the world's largest undeveloped gold deposits and one of the largest palladium resources outside of South Africa and Russia, located in Greenland; and

- Munni Munni (30% interest) - Situated in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, the Munni Munni Complex is one of Australia's most significant PGM occurrences. Munni Munni also has potential for conglomerate hosted gold and is a joint venture with Artemis Resources Limited.

For more information please see:


Corey Nolan
Managing Director
Tel: +61-7-5580-9094

Link: Platina Scandium Project - Mining Lease Application Lodged

Related Companies

Platina Resources Limited

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To: LoneClone who wrote (15881)5/12/2019 2:29:30 PM
From: LoneClone
   of 17066
Vanadium and Niobium Substitution

Michael Drozd, Vice President of Operations, Prophecy Development Corp.

Date April 26, 2019

As the vanadium market becomes tighter, the name niobium (also known as columbium) begins to be bandied about. To understand why niobium is under discussion, you will need a little chemistry background. Vanadium is an element with the atomic number of 23 and a molecular weight of 51. It is located on the periodic table just below vanadium, which indicates it shares with it some chemical properties. Niobium has an atomic number of 41 and a molecular weight of 93. So on an atomic basis, niobium is 45.2% heavier than vanadium.

When you talk about elements, you speak in terms of moles. One mole of vanadium is 51 grams, and it contains 6.023X1023 atoms. But a mole of niobium is 93 grams and contains the same number of atoms. This relationship is known as Avogadro’s number. The relationship is immutable and applies always. This gets us back to the statement that niobium is 45.2% heavier than vanadium: an alloy with a certain molar amount of niobium will be heavier than an alloy with the same molar amount of vanadium (other things being equal). This makes a difference when you are trying to improve fuel mileage in airplanes or motor vehicles. (Note: Military grade aluminum from your favorite truck commercial contains no vanadium. Military grade refers to the specifications used by the military to purchase aluminum alloy.) The amount of vanadium in steel and glass (used to color the glass or, in the case of smart glass, as an integral part of the material) comes to less than 0.5% in an automobile. The largest use of vanadium by far is in structural steel.

As the term alloy was used above, what an alloy is must be understood. An alloy is a metallic solid composed of a homogeneous mixture of a metal with at least one other metal, metalloid, or non-metal. Most metals you come in contact with are alloys rather than pure. Common alloys are stainless steels (SS210, SS410, SS304) in cars and appliances, aluminum (series 6000 aluminum, such as 6063) in doors and windows, and structural steel (A-572) in buildings and cars. So it can be said that an alloy is a mixture of metal additives in a metal base (iron, aluminum, nickel, etc.). They are produced because the mixture has properties better suited to the intended use than the metal base.

The addition of vanadium (or niobium) to a rebar (structural steel) recipe makes a stronger metal. The same idea goes for other metal alloy bases. But this alloying of metal not only increases strength, but in some cases it imparts corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance, or an increase or decrease in the potential flow of electricity. Alloy steels are usually a mixture of steel and 1–20% nickel, 1–20% chromium, and minor amounts of manganese, silicon, molybdenum, cerium, vanadium, niobium, aluminum, carbon, and a myriad other metals.

Each of these mixtures has been developed for specific uses, with the ingredient proportions determined by trial and error. The metals are mixed in small batches, and the resulting alloy is tested to determine its properties.

A superalloy is a mixture of metals with a nickel base. These alloys are resistant to corrosion or temperature or both. They are important because they can be used in conditions that would destroy most metals.

In something known as high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel, a minor addition (many times less than 0.5%) results in a large increase in strength. HSLA steels are used in building structures (structural steel), automotive frames, airplane fuselages (aluminum alloys), and jet engines (titanium alloys). All of these alloys use vanadium. There are some uses of alloys (such as rebar, reinforcing bars that are part of concrete structures) that can use the “periodicity” of a metal (elements in the same column of the periodic table sharing chemical and alloying properties) to substitute for the metal above or below it on the periodic table. This is the case for vanadium and niobium, as they are both in column 5B and so have similar properties.

The difference between vanadium HSLA steel and niobium HSLA steel derives from the manufacturing process and the quality control. Vanadium steel can be manufactured at a lower temperature due to better grain size formation. Niobium rebar has to be raised to a higher temperature and be cooled under much more stringent conditions so as to maintain metal quality. Additionally, niobium rebar can be more brittle (cracks form earlier) than vanadium rebar. This means that after proper alloy development, it is possible to substitute one metal for the other. These substitute alloys have slightly different properties, and the particular alloy has to be vetted to determine whether the differences are minor. Usually, as the molecular weight increases, the elements in the group become less viable as a substitute—because the molecules become too large. So niobium HSLA alloys may be more brittle than vanadium alloys, but this brittleness may be acceptable since the tensile strength (the maximum load that a material can support without fracture when stretched, divided by the original cross-section area of the material) may be a more important property than the lateral stability or shear strength. (Shear strength is a material’s ability to resist forces that can cause parts of the internal structure of the material to slide against each other. Adhesives tend to have high shear strengths.)

As the prices of commodities change, substitution is always considered in order to moderate the cost. Under the best conditions, an inexpensive, widely available material is substituted for the expensive material. But under most conditions, the material available for substitution is only slight less expensive. Another factor is that since the substituted item probably has a finite production level, sudden use by another industry can cause price repercussions that may make the substituted material more expense than the original.

In 2018, United States niobium consumption was about 10,000 tonnes, 27% higher than the previous year (2014 usage was 10,000 tonnes). World niobium production is 68,000 tonnes, 88% of which is from a mining complex in Brazil. Another 10% is from at a mine in Canada, and the remaining 2% comes from Africa and Australia. The estimated price for 2018 US consumption was $12.80/lb. The niobium market has been very stable for years, and the increase in US consumption was absorbed by the market. Vanadium production is significantly higher than niobium production (which was 73,000 tonnes worldwide in 2018). If niobium is not available at a reasonable price, the first choice for substitution is tantalum (world production, 1,800 tonnes). But that metal is less suited to HSLA substitution, and its low world production level makes its use as an inexpensive substitute problematic.

One can be sure that any of the metals that can be used as a substitute for vanadium will be explored when the price of vanadium increases. But the lower production levels of these metals and the stability of their supply probably limits their usefulness as substitutes for vanadium. While economics will force substitutions for vanadium, it is expected that the price advantages will be short-lived and that prices will increase since the limited supply and low potential increase in production will dry up metal supply.

Therefore, vanadium substitution will come to the market to the extent possible, and the less desirable properties will be accepted with potential savings. But the available substitute production is limited, and it will probably not cover the expected annual increase in usage (6%, or 4,000 to 5,000 tonnes per year). So until new production comes online, the price of all of these metals will probably experience upward pressure.

Mr. Drozd is the Vice President of Operations at Prophecy Development Corp (TSX: PCY, OTC PRPCF) which is developing America’s first primary vanadium mine. Mr. Drozd specializes in metallurgy with 40 years of experience in the mining industry with firms such as Barrick and AMEC. Mr. Drozd has authored publications in gold flotation, gold processing, heap leach operations, cyanide detoxification, and carbon absorption technology. He also holds patents in molybdenum flotation, cyanide detoxification and vanadium recovery.

If you have any questions regarding this article, please email us at

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To: LoneClone who wrote (15882)5/12/2019 3:22:36 PM
From: LoneClone
   of 17066
Great Atlantic Acquires Glenelg Vanadium Property - Southwest New Brunswick

Monday, May 6, 2019 8:40 AM

VANCOUVER, BC / ACCESSWIRE / May 6, 2019 / GREAT ATLANTIC RESOURCES CORP. (TSXV.GR) (the "Company" or "Great Atlantic") is pleased to announce it has acquired, through an option agreement and by staking, the Glenelg Vanadium Property, located in southwest New Brunswick. Recent bedrock grab samples from the property from a layered intrusion returned significant levels of vanadium and titanium. Historic grab bedrock samples are reported to return significant levels for gold, cobalt and bismuth. The property is located approximately 5 kilometers southeast of the Clarence Stream Gold Project of Galway Metals Inc.

  • Recent and historic bedrock grab samples of 0.33 & 0.42% V2O5.
  • Historic bedrock grab sample of 14 g/t Au, 1.38% Bi, 0.65% Co and 27.5 % TiO2.
  • Vanadium, titanium and iron mineralization in layered Bocabec Gabbro Complex.

(To view the full-sized image, please click here)

The Glenelg property has seen little exploration. Company management cannot find evidence of historical drilling within the property. The property is reported to be underlain by the Silurian Bocabec Gabbro Complex (gabbro, minor granodiorite, diorite and granite).

Polymetallic veins were discovered within the property during 2006 and 2013 by one of the option partners. A grab sample collected during 2006 was reported to return 2.6 grams per tonne (g/t) gold and 0.65% cobalt. Another grab sample was reported to return greater than 1% copper and 0.15% cobalt. A 2013 grab sample from a sulfide vein was reported to return 14 g/t gold, 1.28% bismuth and 0.12% cobalt.

A 2013 sample collected by one of the option partners from a magnetic layer in the Bocabec Gabbro Complex was reported to return 0.237% vanadium (0.42% V2O5), 16.5% titanium (27.5% TiO2) and greater than 30% iron.

A grab sample from a magnetic layer collected by Great Atlantic during 2018 returned 0.188% vanadium (0.33% V2O5), 10.10.3% TiO2 and 25.71% iron. This sample was collected by a qualified person. This sample was analyzed by ALS Canada Ltd. by XRF Fusion.

(To view the full-sized image, please click here)

(To view the full-sized image, please click here)

The Glenelg Property is located approximately 5 kilometers southeast of the Clarence Stream Gold Project of Galway Metals Inc. (TSXV.GWM). Galway reported a NI 43-101 resource estimate for the project during 2018, reporting total Measured plus Indicated resources of 6,178,000 tonnes at 1.96 g/t gold (390,000 ounces of gold) and total Inferred resources of 3,409,000 tonnes at 2.53 g/t gold (277,000 ounces of gold). Galway recently reported a new gold discovery at the Clarence Stream Gold Project with one hole reported to intersect 7.3 g/t gold over 36.7 meters core length (Galway News Release of February 13, 2019).

The Glenelg Vanadium Property is located within southwest New Brunswick approximately 20 kilometers east of the town of St. Stephen and approximately 15 kilometers northwest of the Company's Mascarene Property which hosts multiple mineral occurrences with cobalt, copper, nickel, zinc, lead, gold and / or silver. The Glenelg Vanadium Property covers an area of approximately 1,185 hectares.

Under the terms of the agreement, Great Atlantic may earn in a 100-per-cent interest in the property by making certain staged cash payments to the optionor over a five-year period as follows: (i) $10,000 in cash deposit (paid); (ii) $15,000 in cash on or before the first anniversary of the approval date; (iii) $30,000 in cash on or before the second anniversary of the approval date; (iv) $30,000 in cash on or before the third anniversary of the approval date; and (v) $40,000 on or before the fourth anniversary of the approval date; and (vi) $50,000 on or before the fifth anniversary of the approval date.

In the event Great Atlantic exercises the Option and acquires a 100% right, title and interest in and to the Property, the Optionor shall thereafter be entitled to a 2.0% net smelter return, payable upon the commencement of Commercial Production.

Optionee shall have the right to purchase one-half (50%) of the NSR Royalty from Optionor at any time by payment to Optionor of $1,000,000, leaving Optionor with a 1.0% remaining NSR Royalty or in stages example $500,000 for ½ of a percentage.

Readers are warned that mineralization at the Clarence Stream Gold Project and the Company's Mascarene Property are not necessarily indicative of mineralization within the Glenelg Vanadium Property. Readers are warned that historic data referred to in this News Release have not been verified by a qualified person.

David Martin, P.Geo., a Qualified Person as defined by NI 43-101 and VP Exploration for Great Atlantic, is responsible for the technical information contained in this News Release.

About Great Atlantic Resources Corp.: Great Atlantic Resources Corp. is a Canadian exploration company focused on the discovery and development of mineral assets in the resource-rich and sovereign risk-free realm of Atlantic Canada, one of the number one mining regions of the world. Great Atlantic is currently surging forward building the company utilizing a Project Generation model, with a special focus on the most critical elements on the planet that are prominent in Atlantic Canada, Antimony, Tungsten and Gold.

On Behalf of the board of directors

"Christopher R Anderson"

Mr. Christopher R. Anderson "Always be positive, strive for solutions, and never give up"
President CEO Director
604-488-3900 – Dir

Investor Relations:
Please call 604-488-3900

This press release includes certain statements that may be deemed "forward-looking statements". All statements in this release, other than statements of historical facts, that address future exploration drilling, exploration activities and events or developments that the Company expects, are forward looking statements. Although the Company believes the expectations expressed in such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, such statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results or developments may differ materially from those in forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements include exploitation and exploration successes, continued availability of financing, and general economic, market or business conditions.

Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

Great Atlantic Resource Corp
888 Dunsmuir Street - Suite 888, Vancouver, B.C., V6C 3K4

SOURCE: Great Atlantic Resource Corp.

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To: LoneClone who wrote (15883)5/12/2019 4:46:31 PM
From: LoneClone
   of 17066
Dakota Territory Resource Corp Signs Lease Option Agreement Company Secures 5-Year Extension for Key Paleoplacer Property

May 07, 2019 11:15 ET | Source: Dakota Territory Resource Corp

Reno, NV, May 07, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) --

Dakota Territory Resource Corp (OTCQB: DTRC) ("Dakota Territory" or the "Company") is pleased to announce that the Company has entered into a new five-year Lease With Option to Purchase Agreement for the Squaw and Rubber Neck Lodes that comprise Mineral Survey 1706 in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Mineral Survey 1706 is a key component of the Company’s overall Homestake Paleoplacer Property position, which currently consists of a total of 365 mineral acres covering approximately 1,750 meters of the channel trend extending northward from the Dakota Territory’s past-producing Gustin, Minerva and Deadbroke Mines.

The Homestake Paleoplacer Channel is believed to have carried approximately 10 million ounces of gold away from exposure of the lode source at the site of the Homestake Gold Mine. In the 1980’s and 1990’s, Homestake Mining Company undertook drill programs that successfully located the buried fossil placer approximately 550 meters north of the Deadbroke Mine, the last producing mine on the channel trend at the point that the channel disappeared under the cover of younger sedimentary and igneous rock formations.

The Channel Extension (CE) drill program cut a total of 5,726 meters from 27 drill holes, including CE 12A and CE 16, both of which were collared and drilled on Mineral Survey 1706. Drill hole CE 16 intersected 3 meters of flat lying quartz-pebble conglomerate of the basal Deadwood Formation assaying 5.85 grams per ton gold at a depth 164 meters below the surface. Additionally, drill hole CE12A intersected 2 meters of Deadwood Formation assaying 8.46 grams per ton gold at a depth of 192 meters below the surface.

About Dakota Territory Resource Corp

Dakota Territory Resource Corp. is a Nevada Corporation with offices located at Reno, Nevada. Dakota Territory is committed to creating shareholder value through the acquisition and responsible exploration and development of high caliber gold properties in the Black Hills of South Dakota.

Dakota Territory maintains 100% ownership of three gold properties covering approximately 4,059 acres in the heart of the Homestake District, including the Blind Gold, City Creek and Homestake Paleoplacer Properties. Dakota Territory is uniquely positioned to leverage Management’s extensive exploration and mining experience in the District with Homestake Mining Company. For more information on Dakota Territory, please visit the Company's website at

Investor Relations

Investor Relations Contact: For more information, please contact Dakota Territory Resource Corp (775) 747-0667

Cautionary Note to U.S. Investors

The United States Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") limits disclosure for U.S. reporting purposes to mineral deposits that a company can economically and legally extract or produce. Our property currently does not contain any known proven or probable ore reserves under SEC reporting standards. Our reference above to the various formations and mineralization believed to exist in our property as compared to historical results and estimates from other property in the district is illustrative only for comparative purposes and is no indication that similar results will be obtained with respect to our property. U.S. investors are urged to consider closely the disclosure in our latest reports filed with the SEC. You can review and obtain copies of these filings at

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To: LoneClone who wrote (15884)5/12/2019 5:25:59 PM
From: LoneClone
   of 17066

Maya Gold & Silver Reports Positive Findings at Its Third Property Azegour (W, Mo, Cu, Co, U) in the Kingdom of Morocco and Announces the Launch of Its Preliminary Economic Assesment’s Work

May 08, 2019 14:44 ET | Source: Maya Gold & Silver Inc.

Tungsten mineralization Main mine drift at Level 1488

Tungsten mineralization Main mine drift at Level 1488
Maya Or & Argent inc.
Chalcopyrite in drift at Level 1488 Main mine

Chalcopyrite in drift at Level 1488 Main mine
Maya Or & Argent inc.
Molybdenite from Izarifen drift

Molybdenite from Izarifen drift
Maya Or & Argent inc.
Underground sampling by joint Geological team

Underground sampling by joint Geological team
Maya Or & Argent inc.
Maya’s Geological team with GMG

Maya’s Geological team with GMG
Maya Or & Argent inc.
Walking the ground mineralized sector with granite on the other side of the river with younger sedimentary rock in the background

Walking the ground mineralized sector with granite on the other side of the river with younger sedimentary rock in the background
Maya Or & Argent inc.

MONTREAL, May 08, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Maya Gold & Silver Inc. (“Maya” or the “Corporation”) (TSX: MYA) is pleased to inform its shareholders about positive findings at Azegour.

Maya’s geological team accompanied by the independent consultant GoldMinds examined all accessible ground deposits and underground drifts at Azegour. Samples of the various mineralizations were collected and an elaborated program has been prepared. The assays results will be disclosed in the future. The samples were delivered to Afrilab of Marrakech. A laboratory site visit and inspection took place during the delivery of the Azegour samples.

The exploration and development program is expected to include surveying of accessible drifts, scanning of stopes, securing of accesses, channel sampling, dewatering of lower levels, scaling, UG percussion drilling, surface diamond drilling and metallurgical testing.

Maya’s geologist concludes that it is now obvious that the previous operators did not exploit all the mineralizations, especially the Scheelite which have been followed along hundreds of meters with widths of 5 up to 35m at various levels of the main mine. The Scheelite, a tungsten mineral which reacts to UV light is visible as a Milky way using Ultra Violet light underground as well as lenses of chalcopyrite and molybdenite in various sections of the mine and in drifts to the north.

Noureddine Mokaddem Founder, President and CEO comments: The findings of our geological team give us comfort that Azegour can become another important asset of Maya. We expect to initiate the work program in mid-June and will continue until PEA is announced during Q4-2019.

Qualified Persons

The technical content of this news release has been reviewed by Claude Duplessis Eng., from GoldMinds Geoservices Inc. independent Qualified Persons under NI 43-101 standards.

About Azegour

The Azegour property is located in the Tizguine-Amizmiz-Azegour area, High Atlas Occidental, Province of Marrakech, Kingdom of Morocco. The property is situated 54 km NNE from the town of Marrakech and 7.2 km WSW from the town of Amizmiz. The Exploitation Licence (PE 183208) covers an area of 16 km2 (4 km x 4 km) (Figure 1). The center of the property is situated at 8° 18’ 14” West Longitude and 31° 09’ 33” North Latitude, or at coordinates: Easting= 222924, Northing= 66813 (North Morocco, Merchich) reaching an elevation of 1597 m ASL. The boundary stone (Point de Pivot) for permit no. PE 183208 is established at coordinates Easting= 221291 and Northing= 71511 (North Morocco, Merchich). The Exploitation Permit entitles the holder to work the deposit and dispose of the substances, herein Mo, W, Cu, Pb and Zn and provides legal access to the property. It is valid for a period of four years and was renewed on July 2015 until July 16, 2019; further renewal is underway.

Under the terms of an agreement dated March 2, 2011 between Maya Gold and Silver Inc. and Ouiselsat Mines, Maya acquired 100% interest of the Exploitation Permit 183208 and all the outstanding data for a total consideration of 20 million Dirhams (approximately $2.5 million) and the issuance of 500,000 common shares of the Company in favor of Ouiselsat. The Seller retains a 2.5% royalty on sales of metal. The share issuances and payments were completed during one year following the acquisition.

Historical production

From 1926 to 1956, the Azegour mine yielded 1,331 t of (MoS2), 5,646 t of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), 27 t of scheelite (CaWO4) and 1.55 t of U3O8*.

In 1984, an historical resource* was established at 1M t @ 0.34 to 0.40 wt. % MoS2, 100,000 t @ 1.90 wt. % Cu and 2M t at 0.40 to 0.35 wt. % WO3*. (Lehmann, 1979; Japan International Agency Company, 1984).

*The estimates presented above are treated as historic information and have not been verified or relied upon for economic evaluation by the Issuer or the writer. These historical mineral resources do not refer to any category of the NI-43-101 Instrument. The explanation lies in the inability by the author to verify the data. The Issuer has not done sufficient work yet to classify the historical estimates as current mineral resources or mineral reserves. Therefore, the Issuer is in the opinion that the above quoted resources for the Azegour deposit cannot be relied upon.


Maya Gold & Silver Inc. is a publicly traded Canadian company focused on the operation, exploration and development of gold and silver deposits in Morocco. Maya is currently operating mining and milling operations at its Zgounder Mine, an 85%-15% split ownership between its subsidiary, ZMSM, and the ONHYM of the Kingdom of Morocco.

Its portfolio also considers the Boumadine polymetallic deposit located in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Eastern Morocco. The property is also a joint venture with ONHYM, whereby Maya retains an 85% ownership.

The Maya portfolio also includes the Amizmiz and Azegour properties, both being 100% owned, with gold, tungsten, molybdenum and copper deposits covering over 100 square kilometres in a historical mining district

Forward-looking statements

This news release contains statements about future events or future performance and reflects management’s current expectations and assumptions. These are "forward-looking" because we have used what we know and expect today to make a statement about the future. Forward-looking statements usually include words such as may, intend, plan, expect, anticipate, and believe or other similar words. We believe the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable. However, actual events and results could be substantially different because of the risks and uncertainties associated with our business or events that happen after the date of this news release. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. As a general policy, we do not update forward-looking statements except as required by securities laws and regulations. All of the forward-looking statements made in this press release are qualified by these cautionary statements and by those made in the Corporation’s filings with SEDAR.

Photos accompanying this announcement are available at

On behalf of the Board:  Noureddine Mokaddem Founder, President & CEO +1 514-978-6111/+212 661-196-111

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To: LoneClone who wrote (15885)5/12/2019 5:57:12 PM
From: LoneClone
   of 17066
[Chromium] Noront Selects Sault Ste. Marie Site for Ferrochrome Production Facility

May 07, 2019 11:05 ET | Source: Noront Resources Ltd.

Preliminary Activity Schedule

Preliminary Activity Schedule
Noront Resources Ltd.

TORONTO, May 07, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Noront Resources Ltd. (“Noront” or the “Company”) (TSX Venture: NOT) has selected the Algoma Steel Inc. site in Sault Ste. Marie for its Ferrochrome Production Facility (FPF). The Timmins Kidd Metsite is no longer being considered.

Four communities participated in the initial bidding process which began in February 2018. All submissions were evaluated based on a comprehensive set of criteria determined by Noront and the engineering firm Hatch, which was engaged to assist in the adjudication process. Critical factors included environmental and site suitability, capital costs, operating costs and an assessment of community acceptance for hosting the facility.

Sudbury and Thunder Bay were eliminated in July of 2018. After a thorough and rigorous analysis of the two remaining sites in Sault Ste. Marie and Timmins, the Timmins Kidd Metsite was eliminated as well. A further refinement of the operating and capital costs of the final sites was completed with the following results:

  • Timmins is the slightly lower capital cost option; and
  • Sault Ste. Marie has a lower operating cost per pound of chrome in ferrochrome.

  • The two sites are similar on a discounted NPV (net present value) basis, but on a cash flow basis, when a potential 100-year life for project is accounted for, the analysis favours Sault Ste. Marie.

    “It was a very difficult decision because both cities submitted excellent proposals,” said Noront President and CEO Alan Coutts. “In the end we were persuaded to go with Sault Ste. Marie because it is located on the Great Lakes and offers a lower long-term operating cost advantage.”

    Sault Ste Marie Mayor Christian Provenzano commented, “This establishes what we know to be true: Sault Ste. Marie is a great place to do business. I want to recognize the efforts of the FPF project team, the support of the executive leadership at Algoma Steel, and the support of MP Sheehan, MPP Romano, Batchewana First Nation Chief Sayers and Garden River First Nation Chief Syrette. I also want to ensure our community and our Indigenous partners that we are committed to substantial consultation and engagement as we move forward.”

    “Our government is committed to growing the economy, creating good jobs, and most importantly, ensuring that Northern Ontario is open for business,” said Greg Rickford, Minister of Energy, Northern Development and Mines. “Today’s announcement confirms that commitment. Congratulations to Noront Resources and the City of Sault Ste. Marie.”

    The next step will be to finalize the development plan and timelines for an all-season road to the Ring of Fire with the provincial government and their community partners. Noront anticipates a lengthy and comprehensive FPF environmental permitting process which will allow the Company to engage in a fulsome way with the citizens of Sault Ste. Marie and other stakeholders including environmental groups and First Nations.

    The following preliminary schedule for activities (milestones) is subject to financing:

    Noront Ferrochrome Production Facility
    Preliminary Activity Schedule
    Q2 2019Site Selection
    Q2 2020Blackbird/FPF Preliminary Economic Assessment
    Q2 2022Blackbird/FPF Prefeasibility Study (PFS)
    Updated Tenancy Agreement
    Q4 2024Blackbird/Feasibility Study (FS) and Environmental Assessment (EA)
    Q2 2025Project Permits/Approvals/Funding
    Project Construction Initiated
    Q2 2028Project Commissioned

    A photo accompanying this announcement is available at

    About Noront Resources
    Noront Resources Ltd. is focused on the development of its high-grade Eagle’s Nest nickel, copper, platinum and palladium deposit and the world class chromite deposits including Blackbird, Black Thor, and Big Daddy, all of which are located in the James Bay Lowlands of Ontario in an emerging metals camp known as the Ring of Fire.

    Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

    For more information:
    Janice Mandel

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