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   Biotech / MedicalNNVC - NanoViricides, Inc.

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From: Straynut6/5/2016 3:29:57 PM
   of 12851
By: DreamTeamNetwork
June 01, 2016 at 15:43 PM EDT

SeeThruEquity Conference Brings Together Microcap Companies and Investors in New York City

Yesterday, the 5th Annual SeeThruEquity Conference took place at Convene in New York City, connecting more than 30 presenting companies with microcap-focused investors, sponsors and industry professionals. The conference featured 30-minute presentations from each of the presenting companies, as well as opportunities for prospective investors to meet one-on-one with the companies’ management teams. In total, SeeThruEquity has hosted 20 investor conferences, attracting more than 4,400 investors and arranging over 1,800 one-on-one meetings.
SeeThruEquity’s quarterly investor conferences deliver considerable value to presenting companies, including an opportunity to speak to a high quality audience of institutional and sophisticated high-net worth investors. The independent research firm also initiates complimentary research coverage on all presenting companies, giving investors a more detailed look at the companies’ positions in their respective markets.

Health care beyond medical center walls
Sponsored by: Kaiser Permanente

Presenting companies at yesterday’s conference included:
3TL Technologies Corp. (OTCQB: TTMZF), Advanced Medical Isotope Corp. (OTC: ADMD), Amarantus Bioscience Holdings, Inc. (OTCQX: AMBS), Apivio Systems, Inc. (OTC: APVVF), Avant Diagnostics, Inc. (OTCQB: AVDX), BIO-key International, Inc. (OTCQB: BKYI), Blue Sphere Corp. (OTCQB: BLSP), Calmare Therapeutics Inc. (OTCQB: CTTC), Cellectar Biosciences, Inc. (NASDAQ: CLRB),, Inc. (OTCQB: CIIX), COPsync, Inc. (NASDAQ: COYN), DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCQX: DMPI), Endonovo Therapeutics, Inc. (OTCQB: ENDV), General Employment Enterprises, Inc. (NYSE MKT: JOB),, Inc. (OTCQB: HEWA), HydroPhi Technologies Group, Inc. (OTC: HPTG), IEG Holdings Corp. (OTCQX: IEGH), International Western Petroleum, Inc. (OTCQB: INWP), NanoViricides, Inc. (NYSE MKT: NNVC), O2Micro International Ltd. (NASDAQ: OIIM), PAR Technology Corp. (NYSE: PAR), PCM, Inc. (NASDAQ: PCMI), Pivot Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCQB: PVOTF), Predictive Technology Group, Inc. (OTC: PRED), Pressure BioSciences, Inc. (OTCQB: PBIO), Progressive Care, Inc. (OTC: RXMD), Rhino Resource Partners LP (OTCQB: RHNO), RiceBran Technologies (NASDAQ: RIBT), Staffing 360 Solutions, Inc. (NASDAQ: STAF), TapImmune, Inc. (OTCQB: TPIV), Yangtze River Development Ltd. (OTC: YERR)
The conference also included a panel on Regulation A+, the newly-revamped regulation that allows private companies to raise up to $50 million through unaccredited investor equity crowdfunding as an alternative to venture capital firms or other institutional capital providers. The panel was moderated by Brian Balbirnie and Michael Colon of Issuer Direct Corporation (NYSE MKT: ISDR), parent company of…
About MissionIR
MissionIR is committed to connecting the investment community with companies that have great potential and a strong dedication to building shareholder value. Through a full suite of investor relations and consultancy services, we help public companies develop and execute a strategic investor awareness plan as we’ve done for hundreds of others. Whether it’s capital raising, increasing awareness among the financial community, or enhancing corporate communications, we offer a variety of solutions to meet the objectives of our clients. For more information, visit

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To: Straynut who wrote (6871)6/5/2016 3:37:19 PM
From: donpat
   of 12851
It boggles the mind figuring out the lifetime cost for each Zika infected baby = $ Millions. Don't know the expected lifetime but the costs will make $1.9 Billion look puny by comparison.

Will the insurance industry pick up the tab? Will the gov??

Probably will BK the country.

And is there any solution???


Is ZikaCide of any assistance?

Does anybody give a damn?

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From: donpat6/6/2016 9:05:34 AM
   of 12851
New material kills E. coli bacteria in 30 seconds

June 6, 2016

A microscopic image of the E. coli bacteria after it has been destroyed by the antimicrobial material. Credit: Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology

Every day, we are exposed to millions of harmful bacteria that can cause infectious diseases, such as the E. coli bacteria. Now, researchers at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) of Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, have developed a new material that can kill the E. coli bacteria within 30 seconds. This finding has been published in the peer-reviewed journal, Small.

"The global threat of drug-resistant bacteria has given rise to the urgent need for new materials that can kill and prevent the growth of harmful bacteria. Our new antimicrobial material could be used in consumer and personal care products to support good personal hygiene practices and prevent the spread of infectious diseases," said IBN Executive Director, Professor Jackie Y. Ying.

Triclosan, a common ingredient found in many products such as toothpastes, soaps and detergents to reduce or prevent bacterial infections, has been linked to making bacteria resistant to antibiotics and adverse health effects. The European Union has restricted the use of triclosan in cosmetics, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is conducting an on-going review of this ingredient.

Driven by the need to find a more suitable alternative, IBN Group Leader Dr Yugen Zhang and his team synthesized a chemical compound made up of molecules linked together in a chain. Called imidazolium oligomers, this material can kill 99.7% of the E. coli bacteria within 30 seconds aided by its chain-like structure, which helps to penetrate the cell membrane and destroy the bacteria. In contrast, antibiotics only kill the bacteria without destroying the cell membrane. Leaving the cell structure intact allows new antibiotic-resistant bacteria to grow.

"Our unique material can kill bacteria rapidly and inhibit the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Computational chemistry studies supported our experimental findings that the chain-like compound works by attacking the cell membrane. This material is also safe for use because it carries a positive charge that targets the more negatively charged bacteria, without destroying red blood cells," said Dr Zhang.

The imidazolium oligomers come in the form of a white powder that is soluble in water. The researchers also found that once this was dissolved in alcohol, it formed gels spontaneously. This material could be incorporated in alcoholic sprays that are used for sterilization in hospitals or homes.

E. coli is a type of bacteria found in the intestines of humans and animals, and some strains can cause severe diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever. Such infection is contagious and can spread through contaminated food or water, or from contact with people or animals. Good hygiene practices and proper food handling can prevent E. coli infections.

Besides E. coli, IBN's material was also tested against other common strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and fungi, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. These pathogens can cause conditions ranging from skin infections to pneumonia and toxic shock syndrome. Our material was able to kill 99.9% of these microbes within two minutes.

IBN's ultrafast bacteria-killing material could therefore be a potent new weapon against drug-resistant microbes.

Explore further: Daily dose of antibiotics helps bacteria develop multi-drug tolerance

More information: Siti Nurhanna Riduan et al. Ultrafast Killing and Self-Gelling Antimicrobial Imidazolium Oligomers, Small(2016). DOI: 10.1002/smll.201600006

Journal reference: Small

Provided by: Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore

Read more at:

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To: donpat who wrote (6874)6/6/2016 9:56:58 AM
From: drkaz
   of 12851
Interesting,.... although I wonder how far they have gone to see if it has toxic effects on animal or plant cell membranes.

As a surface disinfectant - it may be wonderful stuff regardless - but if it cannot be used directly on hands or on patient tissues, it may limit some of its potential utility.

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To: drkaz who wrote (6875)6/6/2016 10:08:30 AM
From: donpat
   of 12851
True - why not try it internally - what's to lose!

To me it seems clear - try!

BWDIK - Some of the most wondrous things happen when those who don't know go ahead and try while the 'smart' know better and do not!

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From: donpat6/6/2016 10:20:24 AM
   of 12851
Zika's ground zero: Generation of babies born with microcephaly face uncertain future

By Vasco Cotovio and Nick Paton Walsh, CNN
Updated 4:17 AM ET, Mon June 6, 2016

Recife, Brazil (CNN)Maria Vitoria is eight months old, but her fragile frame has already seen so much suffering.

She was born with microcephaly, likely as a result of the Zika virus, and her family abandoned her at birth.
Now she is growing, but the development of her brain is stunted by the birth defect, and slowly, day by day, her adopted parents Kely and Josimar Oliveira are learning what this means: can she see, does she hear them?

Discoveries like these -- heart-shredding moments -- are happening every day at the Altino Ventura Foundation Clinic in Recife.

This port city in Brazil's northeast was Ground Zero for the country's Zika outbreak; months on, it is seeing the babies born under a global spotlight age quietly, their symptoms and burdens growing daily.

But for Kely Oliveira, the choice to bring Maria Vitoria into her home was a simple one: she had long hoped to adopt, and instinct took over the moment she met the baby.

"For me it was love really, you know, a mother's love," she explains. "When we saw her, we fell in love with her."

"I didn't want to know what she had, what she didn't ... to me that doesn't matter. She's my daughter."
The adoption progressed quickly once Kely and Josimar had made their decision.

Zika: Will this baby be OK?

Developmental problems

Much of what happens at the clinic also happens fast; as the youngest victims of the world's newest pandemic are put through a barrage of tests.

The discoveries are painful and swift: Visual stimulation, to find out if they can see. Hearing tests, to learn if they will one day speak easily. It is a tough ride.

For Maria Vitoria and her adoptive mother Kely, this is a particularly special moment: today the eight-month-old will, for the first time, be given glasses to help her vision.

"She needs them," Kely says. "She has a problem with her eyesight." Microcephaly hampers a child's development and the eyes are often one of the areas affected.

"I took her to the eye doctor and he said that at the moment she only needs glasses to stimulate her eyesight," Kely explains, adding "these babies need to wear glasses to avoid harming their eyesight even further."

Maria Vitoria's difficulties don't end there; she has been attending regular physical therapy sessions, and has medical appointments three days a week.

"It is a bit of a rush, her schedule is full," Kely says, admitting that her life has been overtaken by the vast amount of medical assistance her child needs. "It is a lot of different doctors and it's not just in one place, it's several places."

Josimar, a public servant with the Finance Ministry in Recife, has to take three days off work, every week, to drive Kely and Maria Vitoria to all the appointments.

And as if the medical expenses were not enough, the cost of gas is crippling.

Where Zika mosquitoes hide and how to stop them

Painful prejudice

For Lacie Santos, whose daughter Giovana was born with microcephaly seven months ago, the sheer scale of time she must spend caring for her daughter has caused problems. The day before we spoke, she was fired from her job.

"I missed so many days that my boss couldn't keep me on," she says. "I'm a full time mom now."

The mothers here, already overwhelmed by the physical and practical challenges of caring for their children, also face another burden: The prejudice they fear society will show to their children, simply because they look different.

"Ours is a daily campaign, a daily fight against this disgusting prejudice," says Veronica Santos, mother of seven-month-old Joao Guilherme.

Veronica found out she had Zika when she was three months pregnant; seven months into the pregnancy, she was told her son would be born with microcephaly.

Holding Joao affectionately, she explains why he had to be fitted with special boots to realign his lower limbs.

"They have ballerina feet, only stepping on the tips of their toes, and the boot is just to correct that, their posture," she says.

Zika virus cloned in step toward vaccine

Hope for the future

Veronica Santos and her baby Joao, who was born with microcephaly caused by the Zika virus.

Veronica says the biggest difficulty Joao faces right now is stiffness in his torso. "He eats right, it's just how fast he develops, nothing else. Everything is alright," she reassures us, confidently.

But it wasn't always like that. Veronica is quick to admit that she struggled when Joao was born, and not just because of the physical and developmental challenges.

"When we went into a room, to see people's faces, the other people who were in the hospital, that for me was the hardest phase," she says, recalling their expressions as they noticed that her son was different.

There is no guarantee that the hours and hours of therapy that the children undergo will make a significant difference in their development.

At times, the mothers take turns to care for each other's children at the clinic -- a moment of solidarity, a recognition that they share the same challenges.

Zika virus 'scarier than initially thought'

There is sadness here, and a tacit agreement not to speak of how long or well the children may live and prosper. But there is also some optimism, hope for the future.

"When she grows up, I think I'd want her to be a doctor," Maria Vitoria's mother Kely says. "To discover more about the issue of microcephaly, to help other people who have microcephaly."

"I would like her to have a career like that."

CNN's Jeffrey Kehl contributed to this report.

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From: donpat6/6/2016 10:34:59 AM
   of 12851
Scientists have found a human protein that blocks Zika replication and prevents cell death


6 JUN 2016

Scientists have finally figured out what Zika virus does to the human body, and it explains why its effects can be so devastating, but infections can go for months without detection.

A new study has shown that not only does it go straight for the brain's progenitor cells, blocking around 20 percent of them from forming new neurons, but it does so without alerting the body’s immune system, so can go on replicating in the brain for weeks.

The good news is that, by better understanding how Zika is so successful in spreading throughout the human body, scientists from the University of Texas Medical Centre have found a way to combat it.

A tiny protein called interferon-induced protein 3 (IFITM3), which is naturally produced in the body, has been shown to reduce Zika’s ability to infect brain cells in both humans and mice, and can even prevent the cell die-off associated with the virus.

"This work represents the first look at how our cells defend themselves against Zika virus' attack," says one of the team, Abraham Brass. "Our results show that Zika virus has a weakness that we could potentially exploit to prevent or stop infection."

Since we all started talking about it back in January, the spread of Zika has been slow but steady, and we’re now looking at a total of 52 countries where infections have cropped up locally, including Brazil, Cuba, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines.

Places like the US, the UK, and Australia have all reported cases from returning travellers, and the US just had its second confirmed birth of a baby infected by the virus.

That’s pretty devastating news, because scientists have finally found the biological mechanism that connects Zika to microcephaly - a rare and devastating neurological disorder that causes newborns to develop abnormally small skulls and brains. The World Health Organisation (WHO) officially confirmed in April that the virus is to blame for the skyrocketing number of birth defects in affected countries.

But now we might finally have an answer to the epidemic that’s been sweeping the Americas and the Pacific for at least 12 months now, and it’s been hiding in our bodies the whole time.

Brass and his team were investigating the activity of the IFITM3 protein in relation to emerging viral infections, because they found that people who have a genetic variant (or allele), of the IFITM3 gene are more susceptible to developing severe influenza. This variant appears to be fairly rare in people of European decent, but more common in Asia and Micronesia.

After working with the dengue virus, and other viruses that are related to Zika, the team found evidence that IFITM3 could block replication within healthy cells, so boosted levels of the protein within both mouse and human cells to see how a Zika infection would respond.

In both cases, the researchers found that boosted IFITM3 levels actually altered the cell membrane, toughening it up so the viruses struggled to break through. If cells had lower levels of IFITM3 than usual, the viruses were found to more easily break through the cells’ defences and replicate inside.

When human cells were exposed to Zika, they are overwhelming infected, as seen by the large number of green cells on the left. When IFITM3 levels were boosted, the same amount of virus was prevented from replicating (right panel). Credit: Brass Lab

"In effect, we see that IFITM3 allows our cells to swallow up and quarantine the virus thereby stopping their own infection, and also the infection of neighbouring cells," said one of the team, George Savidis. "We think this also reduces the levels of cell death caused by Zika virus."

"IFITM3 pretty much keeps Zika virus stuck in no man's land, where it can't do anything to harm us," he added.

So where to from here? The effects of the protein have only been tested in cells extracted from humans and mice and cultured in the lab, so will need to be tested in situ before we can get too excited about the potential of a new treatment or vaccine for Zika.

The team plans to test their findings in mice that are IFITM3-deficient to see if they’re more susceptible to the effects of the virus. They’ll also be searching for molecules that could boost the levels of IFITM3 in the body, which could be developed into a new drug that not only combats Zika, but many other related viruses. Right now, there is no treatment, cure, or prevention for Zika.

"A lot of data by us and others in the field has shown that IFITM3 has a big impact on blocking many emerging viruses such as dengue, Zika, and Ebola," says Brass. "Given our recent results with Zika virus, it's now even more important that we work to find out how IFITM3 is blocking these viruses, and use that knowledge to prevent and treat infections."

The results have been published in Cell Reports.

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From: donpat6/6/2016 10:43:24 AM
   of 12851
How the white-footed mouse can help humans fight diseases

Clues sought for treatment of flaviviruses by studying cells


Published on June 6, 2016

Adaeze Izuogu is a PhD student in the department of medical microbiology and immunology at the University of Toledo college of medicine.

Have you ever wondered if animals get sick with the same infections that affect humans?

In recent years, the world has been threatened with dangerous disease-causing viruses such as Ebola, Dengue, SARS, and currently, Zika virus. These viruses all infect animals before transmission to humans. Curiously, most infected animals do not get sick despite infection. It is a puzzle to researchers that these animals resist the viral diseases and suggests that the animals have some survival secrets that we humans do not.

A group of viruses called flaviviruses presents an even more complex picture of human virus infection and disease. These include many widespread viruses such as West Nile, Zika, Powassan, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. An insect vector is required to transmit these viruses from animals to humans, which most often occurs by the bite of a mosquito or tick that had previously bitten an infected animal.

The human disease that develops from the infected insect could involve a simple fever or a very severe multi-organ illness or even brain damage with possible long-term consequences. Unfortunately, there is currently no specific treatment for infection with this group of viruses, and up to 60 percent of people who develop disease can die from infection.

Our studies, conducted in the laboratory of Dr. Travis Taylor at the University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, are seeking clues for treatment of flaviviruses by studying cells of a natural animal host: the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). This is the most common wild rodent in North America.

Ticks infected with flavivirus that bite a white-footed mouse can pass the flavivirus to that mouse. The mouse remains infected for a long time but without disease symptoms. Any other tick that then bites this mouse for a blood meal can acquire the flavivirus infection and transmit it to a human.

The main goal of our research is to identify how the white-footed mouse remains free of disease while infected with the flavivirus, unlike humans. If we can find the exact process of defense against disease in the white-footed mouse, we may be able to use a similar approach to combat flavivirus disease in humans.

We discovered that the flavivirus grows to much lower numbers in cells in culture from the white-footed mouse as compared to cells from the house mouse (Mus musculus), which is not resistant to flavivirus disease symptoms.

We have now tested several strains of tick-borne flaviviruses. Every strain tested exhibits the same low numbers in cells of the white-footed mouse. Further research revealed that flavivirus growth in the white-footed mouse is blocked when the virus attempts to make more copies of itself within the cell, which is why there are fewer virus particles in the cell culture as compared to the house mouse.

So why is the same flavivirus more dangerous in some species than others? We believe this difference is because the white-footed mouse’s higher immune system activity defends against virus particles. Generally, the higher the activity of your immune system, the better your defense against disease will be.

The next step was to identify the main biochemical pathway involved in defense. We used molecular tools to block the interferon response, which is the body’s process of sensing viral infection and activating an immune defense. We discovered that when this pathway is blocked in cells of the white-footed mouse, there are many more virus particles in these cells. This suggests that the white-footed mouse cell defense activity suppresses virus growth.

We’ve learned that virus detection and interferon activation prevent the growth of flaviviruses in the white-footed mouse. The next step is to identify specific proteins in this mouse that are triggered by the interferon pathway to inhibit flavivirus disease after infection. We anticipate that these specific proteins will help in drug design by mimicking the survival strategy of the white-footed mouse.

Adaeze Izuogu is a PhD student in the Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology in the University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences Biomedical Science Program. Adaeze is doing her research in the laboratory of Dr. Travis Taylor. For more information,


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From: Straynut6/6/2016 11:10:32 AM
3 Recommendations   of 12851
After An Up-And-Down Spring, Has Nanoviricide Set Itself Up For A Solid Second Half?Jun. 6, 2016 11:02 AM ET|
About: NanoViricides, Inc. (NNVC)

Just One Lab Nerd? Following(156 followers)
Long-term horizon, biotech, small-cap, mid-cap

SummaryNNVC has inked arrangements with 3 prestigious University laboratories to help select anti-Herpes drug candidates.
NNVC has also signed an agreement with St. Jude's medical center to complete pre-clinical testing for its anti-influenza drug candidate.
NNVC remains in a stable financial condition with sufficient resources to move its lead drug candidates forward.
It has been just over a year since I toured Nanoviricide's (NYSEMKT:NNVC) newly commissioned and (at that point) mostly functional, manufacturing plant in Shelton CT. While I intend to return there sometime this Summer or Fall, I have not had the opportunity to revisit the plant since that date. Several other individuals I have contact with have had that opportunity, and what they have related to me indicates that the pieces missing when I toured the plant in May of 2015 are now in place. The facility is fully staffed, and work there is progressing nicely. The absence of a cGMP capable production facility had been one of the pieces holding NNVC back both from scaling up production capacity, and from producing the quality of their candidate drugs needed to go into human clinical testing.
During the last year shareholders in NNVC have experienced an extremely dynamic, up & down market. During the Summer and Fall of 2015 share prices steadily declined and reached a low of less than $0.90/share, although share prices rebounded a bit before the end of 2015. NNVC opened 2016 (January 4) with a share price of $1.18 and climbed steadily during the Winter. Through the middle of March, there was a significant increase in share prices that correlated with the announcement of a new set of drug candidate testing partnerships (discussed below). By March 24, NNVC closed with a share price of $3.04 after reaching a maximum of over $3.40 per share on March 22. Over the course of the next several weeks share prices steadily dropped back to as low as $1.45 on May 12. As of this writing, NNVC stock prices had spiked (at least briefly) again to over $1.80, after trading in a range of near $1.50-$1.60 for most of the last few weeks.

Even with significant regression from the high share prices (and that nearly 150% short-term gain from the opening of 2016) seen in March, NNVC still holds a solid gain since the start of 2016. Those who have traded this stock and who were skilled (or lucky) enough to buy early and sell shares near that peak could have banked a solid profit since the end of 2015. Those who bought in during the run up during March are looking at a very significant loss and are no doubt concerned about further regression.
During December 2015 I wrote an overview of NNVC and why investors might expect to see significant progress during 2016 after an extremely underwhelming 2014 and 2015. While I anticipated that NNVC should move higher during 2016, the rate of and level of share price appreciation during the first 3 months of 2016 greatly exceeded my expectations. I did not foresee this rapid push past $2.50 into the $3 range during March of 2016 where, at least briefly, NNVC was trading in price ranges shareholders have not seen since during 2014.
During the remainder of this article, I will attempt to address some of the reasons we have seen this fairly extreme movement in share prices. I will point out several steps forward that the company has taken during early 2016, and attempt to assess what shareholders might expect to see during the remainder of 2016.
There have been a few specific developments of note for NNVC since my December 2015 article that do amount to solid steps forward for the company.
During January and February of 2016, NNVC announced that it has engaged three world-class University laboratories in the testing of late-stage candidate anti-Herpes (HerpesCide, to use the NNVC terminology) drug candidates for their potential to treat Herpes Infections, initially focusing on Herpes infections of the eye. Testing results from these three prominent laboratories will give considerable credence to NNVC once they have provided the outside and independent assessment of NNVC's candidate HerpesCide compounds. I will discuss these collaborations and what they might mean a bit later in this article.

During May of 2016, NNVC has announced that they hired an experienced virologist, Dr. Brian Friedrich. Dr. Friedrich has worked with a variety of human pathogenic viruses. The addition of Dr. Friedrich will allow NNVC to screen early candidate compound in house, rather than having to schedule (and pay for) this important work with outside laboratories. This will simplify logistics, and should save NNVC considerable time and money in developing new or optimizing existing drug candidates for their pipeline. The Connecticut State Health Department also recently certified a small (but functional) containment facility housed within the Shelton manufacturing plant where this work can be conducted. I described the presence of this facility in detail in a previous article. This is excellent news for current and potential shareholders as this should increase the efficiency, and lower the expenses involved in early stages of testing of candidate nanoviricides for the future.
On May 31, NNVC announced that they had entered into a collaborative testing agreement with the St. Jude's Children's Hospital to (finally in the minds of many shareholders) begin some of the additional testing for their FluCide drug candidate that was suggested to them as part of their pre-IND meeting now several years past. The pre-IND meeting suggested that one of the issues that remained for NNVC to address was whether, or not, their FluCide drug candidate(s) were effective against a broader range of flu virus subtypes. This collaboration will give NNVC access to the expertise and the facilities needed to complete this testing and remove one of the potential roadblocks foreseen for FluCide if it were to be put into human clinical testing.
Three February announcements of agreements with university laboratories to carry out testing for HerpesCide drug candidates:
On February 1, NNVC announced that it has struck an agreement with the University of Wisconsin for the evaluation HerpesCide drug candidates in models of ocular herpes virus infections. The work is being carried out under the direction of Dr. Curtis Brandt. Dr. Brandt's laboratory has a history of working with several companies to test and develop antiviral drugs, and maintains an active and productive research program. Dr. Brandt has published broadly in peer-reviewed literature.

On February 11, NNVC announced that it has also struck an agreement with the University of Pittsburgh for the evaluation HerpesCide drug candidates in models of ocular herpes virus infections. The work is being carried out under the direction of Mr. Eric G Romanowski. Mr. Romanowski's research group at the Charles T. Campbell Ophthalmic Microbiology Laboratory has extensive history in investigating anti-viral and anti-microbial agents to treat disease of the eye. NNVC also has stated that they intend to perform IND-enabling efficacy work for their candidate HerpesCide(s) in the Campbell Laboratory. The laboratory has one of the top clinical research programs in the country focused on eye diseases and their treatments. Mr. Romanowski has also published broadly in peer-reviewed literature.
On February 16, NNVC announced that it has struck a third agreement with the Baylor College of Medicine for the evaluation HerpesCide drug candidates in small animal models of ocular herpes virus infections. The work is being carried out under the direction of Dr. Stephen Pflugfelder. Dr. Pflugfelder's research group at Baylor Dept. of Ophthalmology is also extremely experienced in ocular drug development and testing, and in conducting clinical trials for treatments of eye disease. Dr. Pflugfelder has published broadly in peer-reviewed literature.
The combination of these three high-powered University research groups gives NNVC a fundamentally solid base to support any subsequent claims that a HerpesCide compound can be an effective treatment for Herpes infections of the eye. Yes, the work at these laboratories still needs to be done and a candidate or candidate compound selected - but anything that does make it through the filters of these three research groups and that shows substantial efficacy against Herpes viruses should be easily moved into Clinical testing. The data that they collectively provide should be rigorously collected, trustworthy, and getting that drug candidate past the IND stage and into Clinical testing once it has displayed sufficient lack of toxicity to assuage safety concerns.

As the work that these laboratories are doing could have been initiated as early as during February, and the NNVC management has indicated that they anticipated that the work that these laboratories would be doing could take between 2-3 months, it is very likely that NNVC will have some progress to report on their HerpesCide drug candidates during the Summer of 2016.
Why might a generalist anti-Herpes virus drug be a big winner for NNVC and its shareholders?
During pre-clinical testing of the HerpesCide candidates conducted during 2015 the company reported that the laboratory of its collaborator, Professor Rosenthal, had successfully treated mice infected with an otherwise lethal dose of HSV-1 (Herpes Simplex Virus-1). There was substantially complete survivorship among mice treated with a topical version of candidate HerpesCide compounds in an otherwise generally lethal infection. Treatment of these same mice with therapeutic (or greater) doses of acyclovir (the same chemistry used in the brand-name pharmaceutical anti-viral drugs Valtrex and Zovirax), the standard of care drug, resulted in only a limited survival (less than 58%) for mice with the same infective virus. Later during 2015, these results were replicated by a second, independent, laboratory.

A generalized structure for Herpes Viruses, showing the primary envelope proteins involved in recognizing and binding specifically to target cells. Figure derived from. These primary envelope proteins are also presumably the target molecules for virus-specific ligands on an anti-Herpes nanoviricide compound. Knowledge of the 3-Dimensional structure and binding nature of these primary envelope proteins are used to design the viral-specific ligands using computer aided modeling. Once candidate ligands have been designed, they are tested empirically to determine which (if any) have the best binding characteristics on viral targets. Often, more than one iteration of design - trial - redesign - trial is required to develop an effective ligand. There is currently no way for NNVC to circumvent the empirical testing aspects for candidate ligands.

A generalized schematic of how (generally) Herpesviruses bind to their target host cells. Figure derived from. While the Herpesviruses are a large and complex family of viruses that infect a broad range of animals, their basic process of infection of those cells, and most of the glycoproteins on their viral surfaces that permit entry into those host cells have relatively conserved structures and functions. Initial binding of the virus (for both HSV-1 and HSV-2, and for many other related Herpesviruses) to target cells appears to be initiated by the binding of the viral gC surface glycoprotein to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (proteins with specific attached sugars) located on the target cell's surface. Once this initial recognition and binding has been accomplished, other viral surface proteins and cell surface targets continue the interaction and trick the cell into allowing the attached virus to enter and to begin infection.
These conserved and required binding actions among different Herpesviruses mean that, at least potentially, a well-designed ligand attached to one of NNVC's micelles, has the potential to bind to more than just a single type of Herpesvirus.
What might the advantage of a topical/externally applied HerpesCide over the existing treatments?
Existing therapies against HSV include acyclovir and other chemically related drugs chemically which must be taken orally or by injection. These drugs are not very effective used as topical treatments, and the existing head-to-head studies between HerpesCide candidate compounds and the chemistries used in Valtrex and Zovirax indicate that the HerpesCide could be extremely effective when used as a topical treatment. The available pre-clinical date we saw described by NNVC during 2015 covering their HerpesCide candidates suggests that they could be extremely effective in treating at least the symptoms of a disease for which there is otherwise no cure.

NNVC's initial market for a HerpesCide drug would be as a treatment for herpes virus infections of the eye. Herpes infections of the eye can lead to severe consequences - including and not limited to damage to a patient's cornea that can require corneal transplants to effectively repair. Existing treatments (including Valtrex and Zovirax) are not particularly effective as treatments for severe Herpes infections of the eye.
An entry into this market by NNVC could be extremely lucrative, and of extensive benefit to shareholders. However, at best, NNVC is not likely to get this treatment into initial clinical trials before the end of 2016, and more likely these trials would continue into 2017. Barring some deeper-pockets Pharma company entering into a licensing agreement with NNVC before the completion of Clinical testing, NNVC cannot realistically expect to see revenue generated from a HerpesCide prior to 2018.
Implications of the May 1 announcement that NNVC has engaged with the St. Jude's Hospital to complete the optimization and pre-clinical testing for their FluCide IV drug candidate.
Prior to the fortuitous discoveries of 2015 about HerpesCide, the most likely lead drug candidate for NNVC was their anti-flu treatment (they refer to as FluCide). Further progress with FluCide has been limited by a few factors. Among these factors were that the company did not have the facility needed to produce cGMP quality material needed to start clinical testing. The purchase, equipping, and staffing for their plant in Shelton, CT has given NNVC the means to get around this limitation. Another of these factors has been the inability to synthesize their drug candidates in sufficient quantity to complete Toxicity testing for that Intravenous anti-flu treatment. This is a problem that NNVC is still working on, and that will likely take them through at least the end of 2016 to complete.
During the pre-IND meetings that NNVC held a few years ago, one other set of limitations that they needed to overcome was that they needed to test their FluCide compound against a broader array of influenza strains and more extensively in order to make the claim that their treatment might be effective as a generalist treatment for complicated, hospitalized influenza patients. The arrangement with St. Jude's and the enlistment of the expertise there should quickly allow NNVC to move forward to overcome those problems. I look forward to hearing more specifically how the needed work will be going forward over the remainder of 2016.

During the testing done during 2012, the FluCide candidate compounds demonstrated that they were highly effective against at least 2 common subtypes of influenza viruses (H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes). If they can be shown to be effective as a treatment for advanced influenza (in general) then the market for their FluCide compound is broad, and could provide a solid revenue stream for NNVC. Given, since it should be expected that Clinical testing may be a year or more down the line for FluCide, the immediate positive financial effect of FluCide has essentially no chance of helping NNVC before we determine whether (or not) their HerpesCide candidate is going to prove useful. Interested shareholders and potential investors should take into account that - at a minimum - FluCide is not likely to be a revenue generator for NNVC prior to 2018 either.
In more general terms for NNVC after the first few months of 2016:
I was looking for two or three specific catalysts before I anticipated that there would be steady improvements in share prices for NNVC. Only one of these catalysts has been announced to date. Shareholders were pleased to hear Dr. Seymour (NNVC, CEO) state that during a public presentation at a meeting in February that they had successfully increased their batch size production capacity to 500 g for their carrier micelles. This was a 2.5x increase over their previous reported limit. However, since that statement, there has been some indication that the company's validation of that 500 g process is still incomplete. This apparent back-tracking has justifiably raised concerns in the minds of at least some shareholders.
NNVC continues to claim that the process is in place to make this quantity again even if the process isn't completely validated, and that the company can move forward with the next steps of preclinical and early stage clinical testing for their HerpesCide drug candidate with the level syntheses (200 g) they have already completed validating. This has been more than a bit of a mixed message from management and is likely one of the factors that underlies the decrease in share prices since March.

The other specific catalysts that I was looking for that I thought would give NNVC share prices a boost during 2016 have not yet occurred. NNVC has not initiated toxicity testing for either their HerpesCide drug candidate, nor have they restarted their long-delayed toxicity testing for their FluCide drug candidate.
In a more general sense, NNVC's financial situation remains stable and they retain current assets of greater than $25.9 MM (as of March 31, 2016). This is down only approximately $2.4 MM since (previously they reported having ~$28.3 MM) their last quarterly report and is not out of line with their burn rate in recent quarters. With these figures in mind, NNVC has a current Market Cap of approximately $106 MM. NNNVC states that they expect this capital to be sufficient to fund planned operations through March, 2018. The projected capital spending through their 2018 estimates includes the planned projected spending needed to begin human clinical trials for at least one, possibly two, of their drug candidates. This continues to be very promising news for current shareholders, as likelihood of NNVC needing to conduct dilutive financing continues to be low and manageable while they continue to move their two lead drug candidates forward.
My expectations for the remainder of 2016 are that NNVC will continue to experience declining share prices until or unless specific announcements indicating that their HerpesCide drug candidates have been evaluated favorably by one or more of the Universities, and that at least one of those candidates is being advanced towards toxicity testing that will be needed in order to place that compound into clinical testing. Alternatively, but less likely to my mind, an announcement that their FluCide drug candidate is moving forward - either into toxicity testing, or that St. Jude's scientists have confirmed that their candidates drug is effectively a broad-spectrum treatment for influenza - could trigger a more positive market outlook for NNVC.

Disclosure: I am/we are long NNVC, CVM.
I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.

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From: donpat6/6/2016 4:09:24 PM
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Thanks kaz - nice work as usual!

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