All Vitamins and Pseudo-Vitamins
Compiled by David Bennett
Chemical Names- Retinol, Beta Carotene (pro-vitamin A)
Deficiency- Night blindness
RDA- 5,000 IU
Optimal intake- 10,000-25,000 IU Beta Carotene
Good Sources- liver, carrots, spinach
Discussion- Vitamin A is fat soluble, and therefore can be toxic in large amounts. Taking over 25,000 IU of retinol a day can lead to toxic buildup. Beta-Carotene is an antioxidant.
Synthetic Beta-Carotene (the kind sold in supplement stores) has been shown ineffective in preventing cancer in humans.
Chemical Names- Thiamine
RDA- 1.5 mg
Optimal Intake- 5-15 mg
Good Sources- brewer's yeast, peanuts, milk, rice
Discussion- Thiamine is relatively safe.
Chemical Names- Riboflavin
Deficiency- lesions on mouth, lips, skin, etc.
RDA- 1.7 mg
Optimal Intake- 5-20 mg
Good Sources- Milk, cheese, leafy vegetables
Discussion- Riboflavin is a mild antioxidant. Its bright yellow color colors urine after it is taken. Also known as Vitamin G
Chemical Names- Niacin, Niacinamide, Nicotinic Acid
RDA- 20 mg
Optimal Intake- 50-500 mg
Good Sources- lean meat, whole wheat, brewer's yeast
Discussion- Niacin in higher doses results in a "flush" reaction, while Niacinamide is flush-free. Niacinamide does not have anti-cholesterol properties though. Also known as
Vitamin PP for "pellagra-preventative"
Chemical Names- Adenine
Deficiency- Muscular weakness (in rats and chicks)
Good Sources- Widespread in animal and plant tissues
Discussion- Adenine is a purine base of nucleic acids. Its status as a human vitamin is in doubt.
Chemical Names- Pantothenic Acid, Panthenol, (Calcium) Pantothenate
Deficiency- hypoglycemia, ulcers, skin disorders.
RDA- 10 mg Optimal Intake- 15-500 mg Good Sources- Meat, whole grains, leafy vegetables
Discussion- Studies with rats by Dr. Roger Williams showed that Pantothenic Acid may be beneficial in fighting the effects of stress.
Chemical Names- Pyridoxine
Deficiency- Anemia, dermatitis, glossitis RDA- 2 mg
Optimal Intake- 10-100 mg
Good Sources- Brewer's yeast, soy beans, wheat germ
Discussion- As a methylating agent, B6 has potential to fight homocysteine, possibly reducing the risk of heart disease. Amounts in excess of 200 mg/day might lead to toxicity, expressed in nerve problems.
Deficiency- Digestive disorders in pigeons.
Good Sources- Rice polish Discussion- Also known as Vitamin I. See also Biotin which some have called "Vitamin B7."
Chemical Names- 5'-Adenylic Acid, Ergadenylic Acid, Adenosine Monophosphate Deficiency- Decreases RNA, ADP, and ATP synthesis, inhibits breakdown of food into energy, reduces hormone function.
Good Sources- Yeast
Discussion- This nucleotide is still listed as a "Nutrient" by the Merck Index. Many sources now claim this substance is indeed an essential vitamin.
Chemical Names- Mixture of multiple B Vitamins
Discussion- See Folic Acid. Some later researchers used Vitamin B9 to classify Folic Acid
Chemical Names- pteroylmonoglutamic acid mixed with other B vitamins
Deficiency- Depressed growth and feathering in chicks.
Discussion- Also known as Vitamin R and "Factor R."
Chemical Names- Pteryl-hepta-glutamic acid (?)
Deficiency- Depressed growth and feathering in chicks
Discussion- Also called Vitamin S and "Factor S."
Chemical Names- Cobalamin, Cyanocobalamin, Methylcobalamin
Deficiency- Pernicious Anemia RDA- 6 mcg
Optimal Intake- 100-1,000 mcg
Good Sources- Meat products, cheese
Discussion- B12 reduces homocysteine levels in the blood, thus it possibly has a role in heart disease prevention. B12 needs "intrinsic factor" to be absorbed, and some stomachs do not produce enough, hence the need for injections.
Chemical Names- Orotic Acid, Pyrimidinecarboxylic Acid
Deficiency- Possibly Multiple Sclerosis
Good Sources- Whey, Root vegetables
Discussion- Orotic Acid, as a "mineral transporter" is available in the form of Calcium Orotate, Magnesium Orotate, etc. Its vitamin status is unlikely. By association, Aspartic Acid, and Colamine Phosphate (Calcium AEP) are in the same class of "mineral transporters," and might have some claim as "B13."
Good Sources- Yeast, grains, legumes, organ meats, wine.
Discussion- Little is known about this; it might be similar to B10 and B11. Perhaps a substance isolated from wine that prevents cancer.
Vitamin B15 *
Chemical Names- Pangamic Acid, Pangametin, Calcium Pangamate, Dimethylglycine, diisopropylamine dichloroacetate
Optimal Intake- 50-150 mg
Good Sources- Yeast, Apricot seeds, Corn
Discussion- The chemical identity of B15 is often disputed. Generally it is believed to be Dimethylgycine (DMG) and Gluconic Acid, although other B15 mixtures vary. If DMG is responsible for its benefits, then Trimethylglyci e would be B15 by association. Both DMG and TMG act as methylators and reduce homocysteine in the blood. Vitamin status is unlikely. 'Discovered' along with laetrile, by Ernst Krebs, Sr., MD and his son Ernst Krebs, Jr.
Discussion- Perhaps studied in Russia, but vitamin status never fully developed. Vitamin B17
Chemical Names- Amygdalin, Prunasin (d-mandelonitrile glucoside), Dhurrin, Linamarin, Lotaustralin, Sambunigrin (l-mandelonitrile glucoside), Prulaurasin (dlmandelonitrile
glucoside), Triglochinin, Linustatin, Neolinustatin, Laetrile, oratrile.
Deficiency- Possible increased incidence of cancer
Optimal Intake- 25-100 mg Good Sources- Apricot seeds, buckwheat, millet, lima beans, flax
Discussion- Supposed anti-cancer substances, a group of cyanide producing sugars known as "cyanogenic glycosides" or “nitrilosides” that release cyanide when acted upon by the enzyme beta-glucosidase (emulsion). Often taken in concentrated form of amygdalin, but soon after mixed with water, the chemical is subject to ephemerization, so quality is poor when pre-mixed in water. Laetrile is a patented formula containing amygdalin, although laetrile is no longer available commercially. Rodent research suggests anti-metastatic effect at high injectable doses. Is an unproven therapy for cancer. Vitamin status unlikely.
Discussion- Listed in Linda Clark's 'Know Your Nutrition.' Otherwise, unknown. Aloe Vera is a possible source.
Vitamin Bc- See Folic Acid
Vitamin Bh- See Inositol
Vitamin Bp- See Choline
Chemical Names- L-Carnitine Optimal Intake- 500 mg
Good Sources- Chicken, red meats, fish
Discussion- Carnitine is an amino acid and not essential as a protein or vitamin. It has been promoted as a treatment for heart disease. Vitamin Bx - See PABA Vitamin Bw- See Biotin
Chemical Names- Folacin, Pteroylglutamic Acid, Folate, Folinic Acid
Deficiency- Nutritional macrocytic anemia RDA- 400 mcg
Optimal Intake- 400-1,000 mg
Good Sources- Green leafy vegetables, soy beans, oranges
Discussion- Folic Acid has potential to fight homocysteine, perhaps having a role in reducing heart disease. Folic Acid is also a key factor in the prevention of many birth defects. Also known as Vitamin M
Deficiency- Eczema, improper fat metabolism RDA- 300 mcg
Optimal Intake- 300-10,000 mcg
Good Sources- Brewer's yeast, soy beans, egg yolk
Discussion- A Biotin deficiency is rare. Unless raw egg whites are eaten often (they contain a substance that binds Biotin), we get ample Biotin. Recently high-dose Biotin has been found to benefit Diabetes. Also known as Coenzyme R, Factor W, Factor S, Factor H, Factor X, and Vitamin H
Deficiency- Liver problems Optimal Intake- 100-1000 mg
Good Sources- Brewer's yeast, Lecithin, wheat germ Discussion- Choline can be made in the human body, but nonetheless, of all questionable vitamins, Choline is closest to being recognized as essential.
Deficiency - possibly Eczema (who are they trying to kid!? Lose inositol and you will lose your total health, get cancer and heart disease.. really at risk from insecticide and herbicide load )
Optimal Intake- 100-1,000 mg Good Sources- Brewer's yeast, grapefruits, Lecithin, peanuts Discussion- Inositol is still present in many B-Complex formulas, and is probably a B Complex
"factor," appearing with the B vitamins, rather than an actual vitamin.
Chemical Names- Para-Aminobenzoic Acid Deficiency- Graying of hair, eczema in animals Optimal Intake- 10-100 mg
Good Sources- Brewer's yeast, wheat germ, sunflower seeds Discussion- PABA was often used in sunscreens, although some people have reactions when it is applied to the skin. Like Choline, and Inositol, it still appears in B-Complex formulas despite not actually "essential."
Chemical Names- Pyrroloquinoline Quinone
Deficiency- fertility issues in mice Optimal intake- unknown
Good Sources- natto, parsley, green tea, green peppers, papaya, and kiwi
Discussion- Some Japanese researchers at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Tokyo believe that PQQ (discovered in 1979) may actually be a vitamin, within the B-Complex. If so, it is the first new vitamin to be discovered in over 55 years!
Chemical Names- Ascorbic Acid Deficiency- Scurvy RDA- 60 mg
Optimal Intake- 100-1,000 mg Good Sources- Citrus fruits
Discussion- Vitamin C is an antioxidant, and has been found to benefit against cancer, infections, and other disorders.
Chemical Names- ergocalciferol, calciferol, colecalciferol
Deficiency- Ricketts RDA- 400 IU Optimal Intake- 400-600 IU
Good Sources- Milk, Sunlight Discussion- Vitamin D is essential for bone health, and is being shown to be an important
factor in cancer and multiple sclerosis prevention.
Chemical Names- Alpha-tocopherol, alpha-tocopheryl
Deficiency- infertility RDA- 30 IU Optimal Intake- 100-300 IU
Good Sources- Sunflower seeds, wheat germ
Discussion- Vitamin E has been shown to be a strong antioxidant, and helpful in preventing and treating prostate problems. Alpha-tocopherol is the only vitamin form, although beta, gamma, delta, etc, tocopherols exist, and might be beneficial. Intake of over 400 IU/day has been linked to increased mortality, therefore supplementation below this amount is suggested. 'D-alpha' is the natural form of the vitamin, while 'dl-alpha' is synthetic.
Chemical Names- Linoleic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Arachadonic Acid
Deficiency- Similar to those associated with lack of fat in diet RDA- None established Good Sources- Vegetable oils
Discussion- Vitamin F is a term for the macronutrients known as Essential Fatty Acids.
Vitamin G - See Vitamin B2
Vitamin H- See Biotin
Vitamin I - See Vitamin B7
Chemical Names- Catechol, Flavin Good Sources- Higher woody plants Discussion- Catechol is a flavonoid. Vitamin J has also been applied to Choline
Chemical Names- Menadione, Phytomenadione Deficiency- Hemorrhage RDA- 80 mcg Optimal Intake- 100-150 mcg
Good Sources- Green leafy vegetables, cheeses
Discussion- Essential for blood clotting; is now recognized as a key factor in bone health.
Chemical Names- Ortho-Aminobenzoic Acid, Anthranilic Acid
Good Sources- bovine liver
Deficiency- Lactation problems in animals
Chemical Names- Adenyl Thiomethylpentose Good Sources- Yeast
Deficiency- Lactation problems in animals Vitamin M- See Folic Acid
Chemical Names- Thioctic Acid, Alpha-lipoic acid
Deficiency- lack of growth in protozoa and bacteria.
Optimal Intake- 300-600 mg
Discussion- Alpha-Lipoic Acid has been used recently in Diabetes treatment, and is an antioxidant.
Chemical Names- Rutin, Hesperidin, Quercetin, Citrus Bioflavonoids Deficiency- Capillary fragility
Optimal Intake- 100-1,000 mg
Good Sources- Citrus fruits, onions, vegetables
Discussion- While not vitamins, Bioflavonoids are making a comeback as non-essential beneficial chemicals. Often associated with Vitamin C, many referring to Vitamin P as "C-Complex." There are over 1000 chemicals that can be classified as Bioflavonoids.
Vitamin PP - see Vitamin B3
Deficiency- Inability of blood to clot in telagiectasia patients
Good Sources-Soybeans, clover, alfalfa
Discussion- Named after Dr. Armand J. Quick, who found a substance in soybeans could prevent bleeding in people with telagiectasia. According to Quick, only essential in patients with that rare blood disorder.
Discussion- Old name for Vitamin B10. Also on "The Simpsons" the vitamin in the "malk" drink, the kids drank at lunch on a budget crisis!
Good Sources- kelp
Discussion- I found one reference to this in a book a long time ago. Kelp is known for its many nutrients, so it's likely that this substance is some other vitamin or mineral. Vitamin B11 was also called Vitamin S for awhile.
Chemical Names- Tegotin, Termitin, Torutilin Deficiency- Anemia, lack of growth Good Sources- Yeast, termites, fungi, sesame seeds Discussion- Vitamin T has been used as a name for growth-promoting substances in termites, yeast and fungi.
However, many sources list it a blood health factor in sesame
seeds. It is likely that these are two separate chemicals and the factor in termites is distinct from that in sesame seeds. This happens because different researchers discover nutrients and call them by the same name, not knowing another person has already used the designation.
Chemical Names- Methylmethioninesulfonium Chloride, Cabagin-U, SMethylmethionine
Good Sources- Cabbage, Alfalfa, Green leafy vegetables, egg yolks
Discussion- Cabbage Juice often heals ulcers in a week or two, so Dr. Garnett Cheney of Stanford, whose research backed up this assertion, proposed it was a vitamin. However, research is lacking into the chemical's vitamin status. Another possible factor responsible for Vitamin U activity in Cabbage and Alfalfa might be Allantoin or possibly the amino acid glutamine.
Chemical Names- Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, NAD
Deficiency- Developmental problems in chicks
Discussion- Vitamin V was also used of PABA
Discussion- Possibly Biotin
Good Sources- Hydrocotyle Asiatica Minor (an herb)
Discussion- A proposed vitamin by certain researchers, I read about in Worldwide Secrets For Staying Young by Paavo Airola. Ultimately "Vitamin X" is used to describe any unknown vitamin, including PABA before it was isolated.
Discussion- Perhaps Vitamin B6.