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From: Savant5/3/2017 8:30:50 AM
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What will we do w/all the extra people by Y10K, if they cure most/all of the diseases...Mayo>>
Researchers develop new tumor-shrinking nanoparticle to fight cancer, prevent recurrence

Posted: May 01, 2017

(Nanowerk News) A Mayo Clinic research team has developed a new type of cancer-fighting nanoparticle aimed at shrinking breast cancer tumors, while also preventing recurrence of the disease. In the study, published today in Nature Nanotechnology ( "Multivalent bi-specific nanobioconjugate engager for targeted cancer immunotherapy"), mice that received an injection with the nanoparticle showed a 70 to 80 percent reduction in tumor size. Most significantly, mice treated with these nanoparticles showed resistance to future tumor recurrence, even when exposed to cancer cells a month later.
The results show that the newly designed nanoparticle produced potent anti-tumor immune responses to HER2-positive breast cancers. Breast cancers with higher levels of HER2 protein are known to grow aggressively and spread more quickly than those without the mutation.
"In this proof-of-concept study, we were astounded to find that the animals treated with these nanoparticles showed a lasting anti-cancer effect," says Betty Y.S. Kim, M.D., Ph.D., principal investigator, and a neurosurgeon and neuroscientist who specializes in brain tumors at Mayo Clinic's Florida campus. "Unlike existing cancer immunotherapies that target only a portion of the immune system, our custom-designed nanomaterials actively engage the entire immune system to kill cancer cells, prompting the body to create its own memory system to minimize tumor recurrence. These nanomedicines can be expanded to target different types of cancer and other human diseases, including neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders."
Dr. Betty Kim
Dr. Kim's team developed the nanoparticle, which she has named "Multivalent Bi-specific Nano-Bioconjugate Engager," a patented technology with Mayo Clinic Ventures, a commercialization arm of Mayo Clinic. It's coated with antibodies that target the HER2 receptor, a common molecule found on 40 percent of breast cancers. It's also coated with molecules that engage two distinct facets of the body's immune system. The nanoparticle hones in on the tumor by recognizing HER2 and then helps the immune cells identify the tumor cells to attack them.
The molecules attached to the nanoparticle rev up the body's nonspecific, clean-up cells (known as macrophages and phagocytes) in the immune system that engulf and destroy any foreign material. The design of the nanoparticle prompts these cells to appear in abundance and clear up abnormal cancer cells. These clean-up cells then relay information about the cancer cells to highly specialized T-cells in the immune system that help eradicate remaining cancer cells, while maintaining a memory of these cells to prevent cancer recurrence. It's the establishment of disease-fighting memory in the cells that makes the nanoparticle similar to a cancer vaccine. Ultimately, the body's own cells become capable of recognizing and destroying recurrent tumors.
Since the late 1990s, the field of nanomedicine has focused on developing nanoparticles as simple drug delivery vehicles that can propel chemotherapy drugs to tumors. One pitfall is that the body tends to purge the particles before they reach their destination.
"Our study represents a novel concept of designing nanomedicine that can actively interact with the immune cells in our body and modulate their functions to treat human diseases," says Dr. Kim. "It builds on recent developments in cancer immunotherapy, which have been successful in treating some types of tumors; however, most immunotherapy developed so far does not harness the power of the entire immune system. We've developed a new platform that reaches tumor cells and also recruits abundant clean-up cells for a fully potent immune response."

Video explanation>>

Future studies in the lab will explore the ability of the nanoparticle to prevent long-term recurrence of tumors, including metastases at sites distant from the primary tumor. What's more, the nanoparticle is designed to be modular, meaning it can carry molecules to fight other types of disease. "This approach hopefully will open new doors in the design of new nanomedicine-based immunotherapies," she says.

Source: Mayo Clinic

Researchers develop new tumor-shrinking nanoparticle to fight cancer, prevent recurrence

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From: Savant5/4/2017 8:59:05 AM
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Salk Institute...Better living through chemistry.. increasing endurance & insulin effectiveness

'Exercise-in-a-pill' boosts athletic endurance by 70 percent
Sedentary mice given the drug ran longer without training.

Salk scientists move one step closer to developing 'exercise-in-a-pill.' Partial view of a mouse calf muscle stained for different types of muscle fibers: oxidative slow-twitch (blue), oxidative fast-twitch (green), glycolytic fast-twitch (red).
Credit: Salk Institute/Waitt Center

Salk scientists move one step closer to developing 'exercise-in-a-pill.' Partial view of a mouse calf muscle stained for different types of muscle fibers: oxidative slow-twitch (blue), oxidative fast-twitch (green), glycolytic fast-twitch (red).
Credit: Salk Institute/Waitt Center

Every week, there seems to be another story about the health benefits of running. That's great -- but what if you can't run? For the elderly, obese or otherwise mobility-limited, the rewards of aerobic exercise have long been out of reach.

Salk Institute scientists, building on earlier work that identified a gene pathway triggered by running, have discovered how to fully activate that pathway in sedentary mice with a chemical compound, mimicking the beneficial effects of exercise, including increased fat burning and stamina. The study, which appears in Cell Metabolism on May 2, 2017, not only deepens our understanding of aerobic endurance, but also offers people with heart conditions, pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes or other health limitations the hope of achieving those benefits pharmacologically.

"It's well known that people can improve their aerobic endurance through training," says senior author Ronald Evans, Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and holder of Salk's March of Dimes Chair in Molecular and Developmental Biology. "The question for us was: how does endurance work? And if we really understand the science, can we replace training with a drug?"

Developing endurance means being able to sustain an aerobic activity for longer periods of time. As people become more fit, their muscles shift from burning carbohydrates (glucose) to burning fat. So researchers assumed that endurance is a function of the body's increasing ability to burn fat, though details of the process have been murky. Previous work by the Evans lab into a gene called PPAR delta (PPARD) offered intriguing clues: mice genetically engineered to have permanently activated PPARD became long-distance runners who were resistant to weight gain and highly responsive to insulin -- all qualities associated with physical fitness. The team found that a chemical compound called GW1516 (GW) similarly activated PPARD, replicating the weight control and insulin responsiveness in normal mice that had been seen in the engineered ones. However, GW did not affect endurance (how long the mice could run) unless coupled with daily exercise, which defeated the purpose of using it to replace exercise.

In the current study, the Salk team gave normal mice a higher dose of GW, for a longer period of time (8 weeks instead of 4). Both the mice that received the compound and mice that did not were typically sedentary, but all were subjected to treadmill tests to see how long they could run until exhausted.

Mice in the control group could run about 160 minutes before exhaustion. Mice on the drug, however, could run about 270 minutes -- about 70 percent longer. For both groups, exhaustion set in when blood sugar (glucose) dropped to around 70 mg/dl, suggesting that low glucose levels (hypoglycemia) are responsible for fatigue.

To understand what was happening at the molecular level, the team compared gene expression in a major muscle of mice. They found 975 genes whose expression changed in response to the drug, either becoming suppressed or increased. Genes whose expression increased were ones that regulate breaking down and burning fat. Surprisingly, genes that were suppressed were related to breaking down carbohydrates for energy. This means that the PPARD pathway prevents sugar from being an energy source in muscle during exercise, possibly to preserve sugar for the brain. Activating fat-burning takes longer than burning sugar, which is why the body generally uses glucose unless it has a compelling reason not to -- like maintaining brain function during periods of high energy expenditure. Although muscles can burn either sugar or fat, the brain prefers sugar, which explains why runners who "hit the wall" experience both physical and mental fatigue when they use up their supply of glucose.

"This study suggests that burning fat is less a driver of endurance than a compensatory mechanism to conserve glucose," says Michael Downes, a Salk senior scientist and co-senior author of the paper. "PPARD is suppressing all the points that are involved in sugar metabolism in the muscle so glucose can be redirected to the brain, thereby preserving brain function."

Interestingly, the muscles of mice that took the exercise drug did not exhibit the kinds of physiological changes that typically accompany aerobic fitness: additional mitochondria, more blood vessels and a shift toward the type of muscle fibers that burn fat rather than sugar. This shows that these changes are not exclusively driving aerobic endurance; it can also be accomplished by chemically activating a genetic pathway. In addition to having increased endurance, mice who were given the drug were also resistant to weight gain and more responsive to insulin than the mice who were not on the drug.

"Exercise activates PPARD, but we're showing that you can do the same thing without mechanical training. It means you can improve endurance to the equivalent level as someone in training, without all of the physical effort," says Weiwei Fan, a Salk research associate and the paper's first author.

Although the lab's studies have been in mice, pharmaceutical companies are interested in using the research to develop clinical trials for humans. The team can envision a number of therapeutic applications for a prescription drug based on GW, from increasing fat burning in people suffering from obesity or type 2 diabetes to improving patients' fitness before and after surgery.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Salk Institute. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  • Weiwei Fan, Wanda Waizenegger, Chun Shi Lin, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Ming-Xiao He, Christopher E. Wall, Hao Li, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T. Yu, Annette R. Atkins, Johan Auwerx, Michael Downes, Ronald M. Evans. PPARd Promotes Running Endurance by Preserving Glucose. Cell Metabolism, 2017; 25 (5): 1186 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.04.006

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  • Salk Institute. "'Exercise-in-a-pill' boosts athletic endurance by 70 percent." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 May 2017. <

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    From: Savant5/8/2017 6:51:54 PM
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    Scientists Discover Why Hair Turns Gray and Goes Bald
    Scientists have pinpointed the cells that cause hair to turn gray and to go bald in mice, but more research is needed to understand how the process works in humans.

    Scientists have pinpointed the cells that cause hair to turn gray and to go bald in mice, according to a new study published in the journal Genes & Development.

    Researchers from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center accidentally stumbled upon this explanation for baldness and graying hairs-at least in mouse models-while studying a rare genetic disease that causes tumors to grow on nerves, according to a press release from the center.

    They found that a protein called KROX20 switches on skin cells that become a hair shaft, which then causes cells to produce another protein called stem cell factor. In mice, these two proteins turned out to be important for baldness and graying.

    When researchers deleted the cells that produce KROX20, mice stopped growing hair and eventually went bald; when they deleted the SCF gene, the animals' hair turned white.

    "Although this project was started in an effort to understand how certain kinds of tumors form, we ended up learning why hair turns gray and discovering the identity of the cell that directly gives rise to hair," said lead researcher Dr. Lu Le, associate professor of dermatology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, in a statement.

    More research is needed to understand if the process works similarly in humans, and Le and his colleagues plan to start studying it in people. "With this knowledge, we hope in the future to create a topical compound or to safely deliver the necessary gene to hair follicles to correct these cosmetic problems," he said.

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    From: Savant5/19/2017 9:26:01 PM
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    Google/Android O/Project Treble/VR/TV upcoming features

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    From: Savant5/22/2017 5:03:55 PM
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    Princeton physicist give answer as to Why We Are Here?

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    From: Savant5/22/2017 6:50:13 PM
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    Communicate w/Dolphins using computer AI by 2021

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    From: Savant6/12/2017 1:34:34 AM
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    Nanoized Super Water....grows 40% more melons hydroponically

    Up to 40% more melons thanks to nanotechnology

    * wonder what's causing the wilted and brown edged leaves? The melons sure look good

    BUSINESSMAY 18, 2017

    Nanolabs, a company specialised in nanotechnology, has been able to increase the production of melons by up to 40% on a farm in Almeria, thanks to the installation of ASAR systems in the irrigation system of the farm.

    In 2015, 30,000 kilos were harvested, while in the same period of 2016, this figure increased to 50,000 kilos; a 40% growth.

    To achieve this, Nanolabs applies nanotechnology through its ASAR solution, which acts physically on water, emitting a quantum of energy that stimulates hydrogen bonds. As a result, these become more active, which translates into a better transport of nutrients to the crops and a significant improvement in the use of the nutrients present in the substrate.

    The increase in production has not been the only benefit of the project; it has also made it possible to improve the quality of the fruit and has reduced both the consumption of water for irrigation and the use of fertilisers and phytosanitary products by 20%.

    For Javier Llanes, CEO of Nanolabs, "the dramatic increase in the melon production is just one example of the great benefits that nanotechnology can bring to the agricultural sector. At Nanolabs, we apply technology to promote sustainability and we work on innovative projects with impressive results in both production improvement and savings in water consumption."

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    From: Savant6/16/2017 7:40:43 PM
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    Work on Y2K prep finally cancelled after 17 yrs....Time to work on Y10K??

    Those monitors @ link are so way-back-when....time flies

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    From: Savant7/20/2017 12:32:21 PM
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    An international team of researchers led by a group at the Australian National University (ANU) is the first to demonstrate ultra-fast transmission of information through an optical nanoantenna that has been imprinted onto an optical waveguide. These results could have significant implications for telecommunication applications, enabling high-speed data transmission through these devices.

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    From: Savant7/27/2017 12:34:43 PM
       of 1247

    Internet/censorship/AI/surveillance/Facial Recognition/'social credits'//China now, USA next?

    BEIJING--China's already formidable internet censors have demonstrated a new strength--the ability to delete images in one-on-one chats as they are being transmitted, making them disappear before receivers see them. Displays of this new image-filtering capability kicked into high gear last week as Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo lay dying from liver cancer and politically minded Chinese tried to pay tribute to him, according to activists and a new research report. Wu Yangwei, a friend of the long-jailed Nobel Peace Prize laureate, said he used popular messaging app WeChat to send friends a photo of a haggard Mr. Liu embracing his wife. Mr. Wu believed the transmissions were successful, but he said his friends never saw them. "Sometimes you can get around censors by rotating the photo," said Mr. Wu, a writer better known by his pen name, Ye Du. "But that doesn't always work." Chinese internet censorship first concentrated on the development of word-screening software to root out politically objectionable content. As a result, internet users over the past couple of years turned to sending photos to evade cyber police. In response, censors upped their game by demonstrating the ability to purge images from group chats and public posts. And in a new report, researchers from the University of Toronto's Citizen Lab said they observed that WeChat expanded its image censorship to one-to-one chats for the first time, in the wake of Mr. Liu's death on Thursday. Citizen Lab said it is investigating how WeChat is able to filter the images. Since the images are blocked mid-transit, the speed is too fast for human intervention. The rapid blocking suggests an algorithm is at work, Citizen Lab researcher Lotus Ruan said. Though activists said they noticed image censoring over the past year, Ms. Ruan said Citizen Lab didn't detect this kind of targeted, person-to-person image blocking when it was investigating Chinese censorship in the spring. Tencent Holdings Ltd., the Chinese internet company that operates WeChat, didn't respond to requests for comment. Companies are required by law to maintain strict censorship of their platforms, a front-line defense that is augmented by police forces dedicated to internet monitoring. The use of enhanced image filtering comes as Chinese authorities engage in a broader push to step up surveillance by using new data-driven technologies.

    Security cameras with facial recognition software are being deployed in Chinese cities to catch jaywalkers and track criminal suspects.

    Local governments are rolling out "social credit" systems that catalog the digital lives of its citizens, ranging from their internet history to bill payments.

    These new capabilities are closing a gap in censorship that Chinese activists and ordinary internet users have counted on--that the sheer mass of messages was too much for censors to handle. "If you hire a million network police, it still wouldn't be enough to filter 1.4 billion people's messages," said Bao Pu, a Hong Kong-based publisher of political books that are banned on the mainland. "But if you have a machine doing it, it can instantly block everything. It doesn't matter if it's a billion messages or 10 billion." Citizen Lab researchers said an increase in image censoring was noticeable as part of a broader clampdown on messages about Mr. Liu. Citizen Lab researchers said they documented 19 images blocked in one-to-one chats, including a cartoon of an empty chair, in addition to images blocked in group chats. Mr. Liu was famously represented by an empty chair at the 2010 ceremony where he was awarded his Nobel Peace Prize. In tests conducted by The Wall Street Journal, some images of Mr. Liu were blocked in private WeChat messages, including a widely circulated one of him and his wife and another one overlaid with information about a vigil in Hong Kong. Some other photos transmitted successfully. Activists said that they have noticed more frequent image blocks on WeChat over the past year and that there are signs the censorship is automated: one image will be blocked while a similar one in a different color scheme will go through. Citizen Lab researcher Jeffrey Knockel said slight changes to an image or its metadata allow it to slip through the filter, while other modified pictures get blocked. That suggests WeChat is filtering based on certain data, or "hash," of the image, Mr. Knockel said. Alyssa Abkowitz contributed to this article.

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