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________________________________________________________________________________________________ "...As already stated, standard meteorology due to using only fluid mechanics can only have temperature moving the atmosphere around. But recently and after just the data from a big storm system was input into a super computer and without any preconceived ideas as to what was happening (fluid mechanics), it showed that the wrong type of temperature seemed to be doing the driving in the system.
With it being the cold instead of the hot pushing air columns up. This left them scratching their heads as rising heat is supposed to drive weather patterns and not rising cold.
But when seen as negative charge heading from the ground towards the positive ionosphere through the conduit of the cloud and as it does so, affecting the matter state of the H2O molecule, it then makes a lot more sense." philipcfrancis.wixsite.com
(essentially, a tornado is like long-lasting, slow motion, ground to cloud lightning.) _______________________________________________________________________________________________
"Knowledge of severe storm patterns may improve tornado warnings" phys.org "Identifying which storms are going to produce tornadoes and which are not has been a problem meteorologists have been trying to tackle for decades," said Scott Loeffler, a graduate student in the Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science at Penn State. "This new research may give forecasters another tool in their toolbox to do just that."
Scientists analyzed radar data from more than a hundred supercell thunderstorms, the most prolific producers of violent tornadoes, and found a statistically significant difference in the structure of storms that produced a tornado and those that did not.
According to the researchers, in 2013, the U.S. upgraded its radar network to include polarimetric capabilities, which provide additional information about storms, including revealing the shape and size of raindrops.
Using this information, the scientists compared areas with large, sparse raindrops and regions dense with smaller drops within supercell storms. The orientation of these two areas was significantly different in tornadic and nontornadic supercells, the researchers reported in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.
"We found for nontornadic supercells, the orientation of the separation between these two areas tended to be more parallel to the direction of the storm's motion," Loeffler said. "And for tornadic supercells, the separation tended to be more perpendicular. So we saw this shift in the angles, and we saw this as a consistent trend."
Loeffler said the algorithm from the study can easily be adapted so operational forecasters could use the program in real time with the latest radar data available.