|AMAT CC: Focus on driving down gate leakage 1000X...|
3nm GAA Era bit intensity will dwarf anything that came before.
So near term, you have the transistor technologies. One of the things I talked about 18 months ago was an approach that can improve gate leakage by 1,000 times. And really what I described there was an ability to bring together different technologies in a single platform. As you're building any of these different devices, all of those interfaces, Stacy, now you have 1,000 steps as you go to build up all of those different structures, those interfaces are very, very critical for electrical performance. So combining some of these technologies under vacuum, very high vacuum, so you're not oxidizing or damaging those interfaces, incredibly, incredibly important. So within Applied we added new capabilities in the company to understand all of those structures and integration. We have deep, deep, deep engagements with our customers around the transistor. I talked about that one particular technology. The focus there is to improve drive current 10% to 15%, which is huge. And then also in interconnect all of the wiring in the chips. That's also a major technology challenge for our customers. You can make it faster, but if you lose it all in resistance and the wiring, obviously that impacts your system. And so those are areas, Stacy, where we have tremendous technologies and capabilities to create, shape, modify, analyze and connect those structures and devices. And I would say the other one is how you connect chips together. There's tremendous innovation that's happening there. You can see some systems going to market that are 3 times faster and 50% lower power just in how you connect the chips together. So those are big, big areas of focus for Applied in engagements with customers.