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From: True North11/12/2013 6:26:19 PM
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United States of America's efforts to screw Canada.
The following should bring us up to speed on this matter a generation ago.
For more recent efforts we are best, needless to say, to rely on forthcoming information from The Guardian & Mr. Snowdon.
'
A BRIEF HISTORY OF
UNSEEN ESPIONAGE IN CANADA
By Floyd W. Rudmin

Dept. of Psychology
University of Tromso
Tromso, Norway N-9037

Email: frudmin@psyk.uit.no

In Canada: 9 Gibson Ave.
Kingston, Ont. K7L 4R1

Draft of July, 1996

The best place, and certainly the easiest place, to find US spies in Canada is in the library. No, not lurking behind the book shelves or hiding under the tables. Look in the books. Look in the US State Department's personnel directories. Look in exposes of the CIA. Look in newspaper indexes, in computer data bases, in books of contemporary history, and you will find signs of US espionage. The spies will spill off the pages. In fact, there are so many, and they are so easy to identify, it is a wonder that Canadians can't see them. We must have some taboos about US spooks, or maybe we suffer a pernicious form of political politeness. But spies don't disappear just because we won't see them.

For example, who's heard of James Wickes Taylor? According to Hutchison's book, The Struggle for the Border, and to Miller's book, Spying for America, Taylor was a special agent dispatched by US President Grant in 1869 for covert operations during the Metis rebellion in Manitoba. Taylor was to encourage western separatism and eventual annexation by the US. His instructions from Secretary of State Hamilton Fish were:

"All your proceedings under this commission are to be strictly confidential, and under no circumstances will you allow them to be made public. This injunction includes the fact of your appointment."
It is not known if Taylor worked with William O'Donoghue, a US annexation agitator in the Riel camp, but Taylor did persuade the St. Paul, Minnesota, Chamber of Commerce to pass a resolution declaring that all of the continent west of the Great Lakes belongs to the United States. In response to this, the US Senate resolved that the US should try to outbid Canada for the purchase of the western lands from the Hudson Bay Company. Other Senate proposals included building a railway spur to the border and opening US mail service to Winnipeg. Senator Alexander Ramsey asked for $25,000 to support the Metis in their resistance to Canada. Clearly, Oliver North, planned deniability, and the funding of Contras are not new ideas in the US.

Preston's book, The Defence of the Undefended Border, is full of spies that he found in US military archives and libraries. From 1880 to 1928, US military officers were routinely given "Hunting and Fishing Leave" as a cover for espionage in Canada. For example, in 1886, Capt. William Manning reconnoitered Sault Ste. Marie, and Robert O'Bryne filed an intelligence report on the strength of Canadian militia units. That same year Brig.-Gen. Thomas Wilson reported on the Canadian railroad system. In 1887, the US began sending routine reconnaissance patrols into Canada to make military maps. Lt. George Scriven described Canadian fortifications in Kingston and Toronto, and Lt. Andrew Rowan reported on Canadian militia performance during the Northwest Rebellion. In 1889, Brig.-Gen. John Gibbon reported on Canadian defences in the Puget Sound area, and Dr. Lewis Balch submitted intelligence reports on Montreal, including maps and sketches for a US invasion route along the Richelieu River. That same year, Lt. Rowan filed a 48-page report on the CPR between Lake of the Woods and Calgary, with a focus on connecting lines that might be used by US invasion forces. In 1890, Lt. Rowan was sent to the west coast to spy on defences in Victoria, Nanaimo, New Westminster, and Vancouver, and a Capt. Mills was sent to the east coast to spy on defences in Halifax.

In 1895, Brig.-Gen. Thomas Vincent, commander of military intelligence, registered new information obtained in courtesy from the Canadian Militia Department. In 1896, he went himself to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and soon after sent the Secretary of War a plan to invade Canada. In 1897, Rowan became head of the Military Information Division's Frontier Section and was sent to spy on the defences at the Canadian naval base at Esquimalt. He studied the fortifications from various vantage points, paddled around them in a boat, and questioned local hotel staff. That same year, after deepening the Erie Canal so that torpedo boats could be moved into the Great Lakes, the US Army Engineers requested and received permission from Canada to survey a commercial canal route from Lake Champlain to the St.Lawrence River. The British Admiralty thought the real mission was to gather information for a major invasion route to Montreal. It seems that only Canadians are blind to obvious signs of US espionage.

Two important military spies presented in Preston's book were the brothers Daniel and Henry Taylor, one in the US Army and the other in the Navy. In 1881, Daniel surveyed and mapped the St.Lawrence River region and in 1886 traveled from Manitoba to Cornwall, Ontario, looking for key points at which to cut Canadian railway lines. He subsequently became head of US military intelligence, and his older brother Henry became head of the US Naval War College, responsible for naval war planning. In 1896, Capt. Taylor urged the Secretary of Navy to prepare plans for war on Canada, and Commodore Gridley was given the task under Taylor's supervision. Gridley's espionage was to be done in strictest secrecy, with no sketching or activity that might attract attention. He reconnoitered Canadian defences from Kingston to Niagara and recruited Albert Crandall, a US Naval Academy graduate working for an insurance company in Toronto, to spy on Canadian shipping activity. Capt. Taylor personally reconnoitered the Canadian border from Detroit to Massena, NY, seeking good crossing points for US invasion forces. US Secretary of War, Redfield Proctor, some years later at a dinner party, claimed that the US invasion plan had called for a surprise attack simultaneous with the declaration of war, just as Japanese were to do to the US at Pearl Harbor.

At the turn of the century, as the US became a more belligerent nation, espionage in Canada expanded to include political spying by US diplomats, as chronicled in Mount's book, Canada's Enemies: Spies and Spying in the Peaceable Kingdom. For example, at the onset of the Spanish-American War, US consular officers and US Secret Service agents violated Canadian neutrality by intercepting Canadian mail and by burglarizing the homes of foreign diplomats. Preston's, Defence of the Undefended Border, shows more plans for war on Canada and more military spying. In 1900, Lt. D.F. Skelters was sent by the US Naval Intelligence Office to confirm Rowan's 1897 report on Esquimalt. In 1902, President Roosevelt sent Capt. W.P. Richardson to gather intelligence along the disputed Alaska boundary. In 1904, the US consul general in Ottawa collected maps for the US Army War College. As described in my own book, Bordering on Aggression, US war games in northern New York in 1908 and 1910 practiced for war with Canada. In 1913, Lt.-Col. Thomas Dugan prepared a 97-page military geography of Quebec and Ontario as part of an invasion plan, with particular focus on the weakness and unpreparedness of Canadian forces. He recommended that invasion forces attack across the St.Lawrence River using pontoon bridges and urged that reconnaissance officers survey the river for appropriate sites. Military survey work was reported later that year in up-state New York newspapers. In 1914, Lt.-Col. B.H. Fuller of the US Marine Corps prepared an invasion plan containing new intelligence reports on Canadian militia. The 1916 invasion plan called for six Army divisions to make long west-to-east sweeps across Ontario and Quebec. This is all in the library. Who would have thought, eh?

In 1917, more than two years late, the US finally entered WWI in alliance with England, France, and Canada. Now that we had become military allies, US espionage in Canada probably stopped, right? Wrong. In 1919, US Army Intelligence requested from the Chief of Engineers information about the Canadian army and about the geography of the border area, including railroads and highways. A stack of topographic maps was produced with an eye to cavalry, tank, and railway warfare in the Canadian prairie provinces. Also in 1919, Canadian Great Lakes canals were inspected, measured, and targeted. In 1920, Col. J.M. Dunn reported on the roads to Quebec City via North Hatley and Sherbrooke, and Col. H.B. Black and Col. E.D. Peele summarized their reconnaissance observations made in Canada. In 1921, the Army War College collated intelligence reports on Canadian airports and on the locations, call numbers, and power of Canadian radio stations. In 1922, Col. P. Hitt toured Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in order to prepare military maps. In 1924, the US War Department General Staff requested intelligence reports for "the Halifax expedition". The 1924 invasion plan called for four invading armies, one each for the Maritimes, Quebec, Ontario, and western Canada. This plan declared:

"Blue [US] intentions are to hold in perpetuity all Crimson [Canadian] and Red [British] territory gained. The policy will be to prepare the provinces and territories of Crimson and Red to become states and territories of the Blue Union upon declaration of peace. The Dominion government will be abolished. . ."
In the same period, US diplomats were collecting political intelligence for the US government. For example, in 1921, Joseph Brittain, US consul general in Winnipeg, reported on the Workers' Alliance of Winnipeg. Fred Slater, US consul in Fort William and Port Arthur (now Thunder Bay), monitored Canada's Ukrainian community. Francis Stewart, US consul in Niagara Falls, spied on labour leaders Oscar Ryan and Tim Buck. William Chapman, US consul in North Bay, hired Rev. Edwin Kyllonen of Kirkland Lake to spy on Finnish worker groups in Timmins. In 1924, US diplomats Albert Halstead in Montreal and John Foster in Ottawa were instructed by Leland Harrison to spy on the new Soviet diplomatic mission to Canada. In December 1930, the US naval attach‚ in Ottawa reported on the deployment of Canadian aircraft and concluded that "Canada had no idea of trouble with any other country."

Earlier in 1930, in May, the US Secretary of War and Secretary of Navy had approved War Plan Red. The objective, set in bold type, was "ULTIMATELY, TO GAIN COMPLETE CONTROL OF CRIMSON [Canada]." The plan was amended in 1934 to authorize the immediate first-use of poison gas against Canadians and in 1935 to destroy Halifax, Montreal, and Quebec City by strategic bombing if they could not be captured. Also in 1935, a special reconnaissance mission was sent to Labrador and the Hudson Bay area to look for airfields with military capabilities. Also in 1935, Congress appropriated $57 million dollars to build three air bases for pre-emptive strikes on Canadian air fields. Brig.-Gen. Charles Kilbourne and Army Air Force Commander F.M. Andrews told the House Military Affairs Committee that the base in the Great Lakes region was to be camouflaged as a civilian airport and was to be "capable of dominating the industrial heart of Canada, the Ontario Peninsula." Also in 1935, the US held its greatest peace-time military manoeuvres in history, with 36,000 troops converging on the border south of Ottawa and another 15,000 held in reserve in Pennsylvania, all to practice for a motorized invasion of Canada. These last two events were in the New York Times, May 1 and August 18, 1935. Copies of War Plan Red have been available since 1974 from the US National Archives for a fee of $25. None of this history is hidden; it is just unseen.

In 1928, "Hunting and Fishing Leave" was discontinued as cover for espionage in Canada, and in 1929, War Department planning staff were ordered not to cross the border for reconnaissance since the danger of discovery was too high. But with accelerated military planning against Canada, it seems likely that other types of agents must have been in place. The following men were likely US intelligence agents in that era, based on their backgrounds, on their assignments in Canada, and on apparent espionage activity during WWII. Again, this is all in the library, most of it published in the US State Department's 1946 Biographic Register:



  1. William Perry George attended the US Naval Academy and then worked for the US Geological Survey, the government agency that makes topographic map. He then joined the US Foreign Service, and from 1925 to 1928, he was posted to Riviere du Loup on the St. Lawrence River above Quebec City, then a target for US invasion planning. During WWII, he was posted to Spain which as a neutral country with a fascist government was a focus of US espionage activity. From 1946 to 1947, he was in Belgrade, Yugoslavia.

  2. Walter Joseph Linthicum worked four years for the US Geological Survey before he joined the Army in 1916 to serve in Mexico. In 1919, he joined the Foreign Service and from 1926 to 1928 was posted back and forth, back and forth, between Sherbrooke and Riviere du Loup, both of which were ideal sites for reconnoitering land and sea routes to Quebec City. At the start of WWII, he was posted to Kaunas, Lithuania, where he witnessed its conquest by the Soviet Union. In 1943, he was posted to Lisbon, Portugal, then the most active center of espionage in Europe, according to Brown's book, The Secret War Report of the OSS.

  3. Herve Joseph L'Heureux served in the US Army from 1917 to 1919, then worked for a Congressman. In 1927, he joined the Foreign Service and until 1936 was vice-consul in Windsor, then considered by US military planners to be a crucial crossing point into Canada. He was next posted to Nazi Germany and from 1941 to 1942 was US consul in Lisbon. In 1942, he became secretary to the US President's special representative in North Africa and chief civil affairs officer in Algeria. Algiers became headquarters for US espionage activity against southern Europe.

  4. Robert Leland Hunter was a US diplomat in Canada from 1928 to 1934, first as vice-consul in Winnipeg and later in Windsor, both of which were identified as key cities in War Plan Red. During WWII, he was posted to Belgrade, Bucharest, Madrid, and Casablanca, all sites of intensive US espionage.

  5. Thomas Edmund Burke served in the US Army before attending the Georgetown School of Foreign Service. From 1929 to 1930, he was posted to Niagara Falls, Ontario. His next posting was to Riga, Latvia, which was identified in Troy's book, Donovan and the CIA, to have been at that time a center of US espionage against the Soviet Union. From 1936 to 1940, Burke was in Quebec City. In 1940 and 1941, just prior to the US Pacific War with Japan, he was posted to Osaka , and then to the Japanese Manchurian port of Dairen.

  6. Donald Quested Coster graduated from Princeton University in 1929 and moved to Montreal to work for a New York investment bank that was buying up electrical utility companies to eventually create the Power Corporation. Coster changed to a job selling advertising on the sides of street cars, a position he held for the decade during which US military planning had a focus on Montreal. In 1940, he became a cook for a US ambulance corps serving the French Army and was captured by the Germans behind their lines. Repatriated, he was next sent in 1941 by the director of the OSS to be vice-consul in Casablanca in the first coordinated US espionage project of WWII. Col. Coster later became executive officer for northern France OSS operations. According to his own Who's Who in America biography, from 1953 to 1956, he was a CIA agent. From 1957 to 1959, he was director of Canadian sales for Raymond Loewy Associates, an industrial design company. He was next in Vietnam as deputy director of the ICA (International Cooperation Administration), and in 1962 he became director of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) in Algeria, then in the throws of a CIA inspired civil war. From 1964 to 1970, he taught counter-insurgency to intelligence officers and Green Beret forces at the JFK Center for Special Warfare.

  7. Donald Dixon Edgar graduated from Williams College and pursued graduate studies at Columbia University. He joined the Foreign Service and in 1930 became US vice-consul in Kingston, Ontario, home to Canada's Royal Military College. From 1937 to 1940, he was consul general in Geneva, Switzerland, then a center of espionage activity. During WWII, he worked under-cover as a private businessman, but in 1944 was back in the State Department as chief informational liaison officer. From 1946 to 1947, he was chief of the newly created Central Intelligence Group, the immediate forerunner to the CIA. From 1948 to 1964, he worked for the CIA under diplomatic cover in Shanghai, Taipei, Rome, Alexandria, Rio de Janeiro and Marseilles.

  8. William Alexander Mitchell was born in Calais, Maine, on the New Brunswick border. In 1935, when US military planners were preoccupied with sea and land routes to Halifax, he was posted to St. Stephen and eventually became vice-consul. From 1944 to 1946, he was loaned to the US Navy, but was soon back in the diplomatic corps, serving in France, Japan, Mexico, and finally in El Salvador, from 1960 to 1964. NAMEBASE, a computer data base that cross-indexes names from books on espionage, shows that William A. Mitchell joined the Association of Former Intelligence Officers and, in 1987, worked with other retired spies for the Parvus Company, a private security consulting business.

  9. Douglas MacArthur, Jr., served for two years in the Army Reserve Corps before being posted to Vancouver as vice-consul in 1935, the same year his father signed approval of the War Plan Red amendment authorizing the strategic bombing of Halifax, Montreal, and Quebec City. Vancouver was at that time also a target of US military planning. In 1937, MacAruthur, Jr., was posted to fascist Italy, and in the early years of WWII, he was in Vichy and Lisbon, both cities of US espionage activity. After the war, his assignments included Belgium in the 1960s during the CIA's intervention in the Congo. He eventually became US ambassador to Iran, again very much involved in CIA activities.

  10. David McKendree Key served in the US Marine Corps during WWI, and subsequently studied at Harvard, Cambridge, and Georgetown universities. From 1934 to 1935, he was assistant chief of the State Department's intelligence branch, then known as the Division of Current Information. From 1936 to 1940, he was posted to Ottawa. During WWII, he was posted to Rome and later to Barcelona, both cities of US espionage activity.In 1935, 1937, 1939, and 1941, Queen's University in Ontario and St.Lawrence University in New York State, in conjunction with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, hosted a bi-annual "Conference on Canadian-American Affairs". It is remarkable how many of the US participants have records of espionage activity. For example, Calvin Hoover wrote in his autobiography, Memoires of Capitalism, Communism, and Nazism, that he began spying for the US government in 1933 while still a professor of economics. He was one of the original officers for the Coordinator of Information (COI) and became a top OSS and CIA leader. Like Hoover, other participants in these four conferences can also be found in histories of espionage, for example, in Smith's book, OSS, and in Winks' book, Cloak and Gown. The conference participants in question included: Wallace W. Atwood, Samuel F. Bemis, William W. Butterworth, Percy E. Corbett, John F. Dulles, Edward M. Earle, James F. Green, Calvin B. Hoover, Henry D. Jordan, William P. Maddox, Samuel J. McKee, Jr., Wallace Notestein, Max Salvadori, and Jacob Viner.

    In 1941, more than two years late, the US finally entered WWII in alliance with England, France, and Canada. Now that we had become military allies, US espionage in Canada probably stopped, right? Wrong. The following is a list of US agents who show signs of espionage activity and who were posted in Canada since 1945. The sources for this listing are: (i) intelligence classification by the State Department's Biographic Register or by subsequent membership in the Association of Former Intelligence Officers; (c) CIA exposes such as Mader's book, Who's Who in CIA, or Agee and Wolf's book, Dirty Work; (h) contemporary history such as Lisee's book, In the Eye of the Eagle, or numerous other books cross-indexed in NAMEBASE, available from Public Information Research (available on World Wide Web or send fax 210-509-3161); (p) postings to cities of known espionage activity or career anomalies such as brief assignments with different US military agencies; (j) journalism as might appear in Macleans, Last Post, or the Toronto Star. A few people listed here were stationed in the US but worked on Canada. When there was conflicting information among several sources on names, dates, or cities of assignment, the Canadian government's Diplomatic Corps directory was considered most reliable. Asterisks * indicate fluency in French:

    NAMES                       DATES           CITIES          CRITERIA Mary S. Olmsted             1945-1946       Montreal        i c p James M. Macfarland*        1945-1948       Montreal        i Isabelle Pinard*            1945-1950       Ottawa          p Richard M. Herndon*         1946-1947       Montreal        i c Terry B. Sanders            1946-1949       Ottawa          p Thomas S. Estes             1946-1952       Quebec City     p Walter L. Campbell          1946-1955       n.a.            c h p Raymond F. de Ladurantaye   1947            Montreal        i c p James R. Ruchti             1947-1948       Vancouver       c p Henry N. Groman             1948            Ottawa          i L. Dean Brown               1948-1949       St.John         c h p Albert W. Stoffel           1948-1950       Toronto         c p James R. Ruchti             1948-1950       Montreal        c p Edward P. Prince            1948-1951       Montreal        i c p Ernest de W. Mayer*         1949-1950       Montreal        p Philip C. Habib             1949-1951       Ottawa          i c h p L. Dean Browm               1949-1952       Ottawa          c h p Frederick A. Pillett        1950-1951       Ottawa          i George A. Berkley           1950-1951       Hamilton        p Arthur P. Allen*            1950-1952       Vancouver       i c Ernest de W. Mayer*         1950-1953       Quebec City     p George F. Bogardus*         1950-1954       Toronto         i c p Dorothy M. Barker*          1951            Montreal        i c p Dorothy M. Barker*          1951-1953       Quebec City     i c p Xavier W. Eilers            1951-1953       Montreal        p George A. Berkley           1951-1957       Ottawa          p Borrie I. Hyman*            1952-1953       Toronto         i p Gerald Goldstein            1952-1956       Vancouver       i c p George W. Renchard          1953-1956       Quebec City     p Borrie I. Hyman*            1953-1956       Calgary         i p Ernest de W. Mayer*         1953-1956       Ottawa          p George R. Phelan Jr.        1953-1956       Niagara Falls   i p William D. Broderick        1953-1956       Windsor         i p Milton C. Rewinkle*         1954-1955       Kingston        p Andrew J. Steele            1954-1956       Ottawa          h Elmer C. Hulen              1954-1956       Windsor         i c p Frederic S. Armstrong Jr.   1954-1956       Quebec City     i p Adolph Dubs                 1954-1957       Ottawa          c h p Raymond K. Oakley           1954-1957       Calgary         i c Ernest E. Ramsaur Jr.       1955            Toronto         i c p Tyler Thompson*             1955-1956       Ottawa          p Philip M. Lindsay*          1955-1957       Vancouver       i c p Delmar R. Carlson           1955-1957       Vancouver       p Robert T. Burns*            1955-1958       Vancouver       p Milton C. Rewinkle*         1955-1959       Ottawa          p Elmer C. Hulen              1956-1957       Halifax         i c p Ruth N. Joyner              1956-1957       Ottawa          i h William M. Wright           1956-1957       Toronto         i c p James A. McDevitt           1956-1958       Ottawa          i c Livingston T. Merchant      1956-1958       Ottawa          h p Herbert M. Hutchinson*      1956-1959       Niagara Falls   i c p P. Wesley Kriebel           1956-1961       Ottawa          p Paul C. Hutton              1956-1961       Winnipeg        i c p George MacMannus            1957            Ottawa          c Joseph W. Scott             1957-1958       Kingston        i c h Rufus Z. Smith              1957-1958       Kingston        p Donald Q. Coster*           1957-1959       n.a.            i c h p Delmar R. Carlson           1957-1959       Ottawa          p Isabelle Pinard*            1957-1959       Montreal        p Arthur L. Price             1957-1959       Hamilton        p Edward J. Thrasher          1957-1960       Ottawa          i c p Eugene F. Sillari           1957-1962       Montreal        c p Robert J. Tepper            1957-1962       Vancouver       i c G. Ryder Forbes             1957-1962       Winnipeg        p Xavier W. Eilers            1957-1965       Toronto         p Franklin O. McCord          1958            Halifax         i c p Balley K. Howard            1958            Chicago         c Edward M. Cohen             1958-1959       Niagara Falls   c p Tyler Thompson*             1958-1960       Ottawa          p Ruth N. Joyner              1958-1962       Washington DC   i h Willis C. Armstrong         1958-1962       Ottawa          h p George H. Raynor            1958-1963       Vancouver       c p Jerome T. Gaspard*          1958-1963       Montreal        h p Alan M. Hardy*              1959-1961       Toronto         i c p Jo Ann M. Hallquist*        1959-1961       Hamilton        i c p Alfred M. Hubbard           circa 1959      New Westminster h j  William B. Kelly            1959-1960       Kingston        p Robert E. White*            1959-1961       Ottawa          h p j Eugene E. Champagne         1959-1961       Ottawa          p Donald M. Dessert           1959-1962       Ottawa          i Nicholas Platt              1959-1962       Windsor         i c p Robert Taylor, III          1959-1962       Ottawa          i c William Kane                1959-1963       Montreal        i c p Rufus Z. Smith              1959-1964       Ottawa          p Charles C. Kiselyak         1959-1965       Ottawa          h p Moss L. Innes               1959-1973       Ottawa          j p Seymour Young               1960s           Washington DC   h George K. Crowell           1960- n.a.      n.a.            h Richard A. Neale            1960-1962       Toronto         c p Robert H. Frowick*          1960-1962       Montreal        i p F. Raymond Senden*          1960-1964       Montreal        c p Jules H. Wayne              1960-1965       Ottawa          i c Rolfe Kingsley              1960-1965       Ottawa          c h p Daroslav S. Vlahovich       1960-1966       Toronto         i c p George W. Renchard          1960-1968       Hamilton        p Livingston T. Merchant      1961-1962       Ottawa          h p Gerald H. Murphy*           1961-1963       Toronto         i c p William P. Armstrong Jr.    1961-1963       Toronto         i c h p Charles T. Magee*           1961-1964       Windsor         c p Sidney Friedland*           1961-1964       Toronto         c p Robert D. Yoder             1961-1965       Quebec City     i c p Walter J. Mueller           1961-1965       St. John        i c h Maynard W. Glitman          1961-1965       Ottawa          p Louis A. Wiesner            1961-1967       Ottawa          i c h p Paul C. Bofinger            1961-1967       Ottawa          p John C. Hawley*             1962-1963       Ottawa          i c p Alice W. Clement            1962-1964       Windsor         i c James Smith                 1962-1964       Washington DC   h Richard H. Courtenaye*      1962-1964       Quebec City     i c h Willis C. Armstrong         1962-1964       Washington DC   h p Joanna W. Witzel (Martin)*  1962-1965       Quebec City     i c p John H. Morris              1962-1968       Winnipeg        i c p William W. Butterworth      1962-1968       Ottawa          h p Harrell K. Fuller*          1963            St. John        p Cleveland C. Cram           1963- n.a.      Ottawa          c h p j William M. Johnson Jr.*     1963-1964       Kingston        c p Harrell K. Fuller*          1963-1965       Ottawa          p Stephen T. Johnson*         1963-1965       Montreal        p Carl J. Clement             1963-1966       Winnipeg        i c p Lyman W. Priest*            1963-1966       Montreal        i c p William D. Duncan           1963-1966       Ottawa          i Chester L. Cooper           1964            Ottawa          c h j Sherman Kent                1964            Ottawa          i c h p j William H. Sullivan         1964            Ottawa          c h p j Patrick McGarvey            1964            Ottawa          h j James M. Smith Jr.          1964-1966       Ottawa          h p Joseph W. Scott             1964-1968       Ottawa          i c h John R. Vought              1964-1968       Ottawa          p Richard H. Courtenaye*      1964-1968       Windsor         i c h William M. Johnson Jr.*     1964-1969       Ottawa          c p Oliver Quayle               1965            Ottawa          h Lawrence H. Harris          1965            Washington DC   h p George W. Landau            1965-1966       Kingston        h p Charles C. Kiselyak         1965-1967       Washington DC   h p Frederick S. Quin*          1965-1967       Quebec City     i c p Leon A. Shelnutt            1965-1967       Montreal        c p Roger A. Provencher*        1965-1967       Montreal        h p Samuel J. Hamrick Jr.*      1965-1967       St. John's      c  Raymond F. Courtney         1965-1968       Vancouver       c p Richard D. Harding*         1965-1968       Montreal        i c h p j Edward C. Bittner           1965-1968       Ottawa          h p Richard J. Slott*           1965-1968       Vancouver       i c Sydney A. Stein             1965-1969       Ottawa          h p j Harry F. Cunningham*        1965-1970       Quebec City     h p Harrison W. Burgess*        1965-1971       Montreal        h p William P. Bundy            1966            Ottawa          c h Richard J. Dols*            1966-1968       Toronto         i p Rufus Z. Smith              1966-1968       Washington DC   p Arthur L. Price             1966-1971       Halifax         p Robert F. Kelley            1966-1973       Ottawa          i c p David L. Boerigter*         1967            Ottawa          p Jeffery Gould               1967            Ottawa          h p Anton W. DePorte            1967            Washington DC   i c h Guido G. Weigend            circa 1967      New Brunswick   c Eric Frank W. Barnes*       circa 1967      Windsor         c Raoul Maora                 1967            Montreal        h Jules R. Kimble             1967            Trois Riviere   c John F. Hostie*             1967            Washington DC   i c Samuel J. Hamrick Jr.*      1967-1968       Montreal        c  J. Chapman Chester          1967-1969       Washington DC   i c p Vlademar N. Johnson         1967-1971       Calgary         c p Charles N. Manning          1967-1972       Hamilton        i c Edward W. Doherty           1968            Montreal        i c h Oscar H. Guerra             1968-1969       Montreal        i c p William L. Richardson       1968-1969       Toronto         c j James M. Howley             1968-1970       Washington DC   i c h p Joseph W. Scott             1968-1970       Washington DC   i c h Warren Hart                 1968-1970       n.a.            h j Joseph J. Montilor*         1968-1970       Quebec City     i p Geryld B. Christianson*     1968-1971       Ottawa          i c Leopold J. Leclair*         1968-1971       Ottawa          i c p David J.S. Manbey           1968-1972       Ottawa          i c p Rufus Z. Smith              1968-1972       Ottawa          p John Ordway                 1968-1974       Winnipeg        c p Borrie I. Hyman*            1969-1971       Ottawa          i p Orville K. McLay            1969            Ft. Holabird,MD j W. Kenneth Thompson*        1969-1971       Washington DC   i p Milton C. Rewinkle*         1969-1971       Vancouver       p Robert J. Jantzen           1969-1972       Ottawa          c h p Vladimir I. Toumanoff       1969-1973       Ottawa          i c p Adolph W. Schmidt*          1969-1974       Ottawa          c h Charles E. Luckett          1969-1974       Toronto         i c p William B. Kelly            1969-1974       Winnipeg        p Eugene T. Olson             1969-1974       Ottawa          i c p Helmut Sonnenfeldt          1969-1974       Washington DC   i c Philip F. Fendig            circa 1970      Washington DC   c h Henry A. Lagasse*           1970-1971       Vancouver       h p James H. DeCou*             1970-1972       Montreal        p William M. Johnson, Jr.*    1970-1972       Washington DC   c p Emerson M. Brown            1970-1973       Ottawa          i p Everett K. Melby*           1970-1974       Quebec City     i c p j Xavier W. Eilers            1970-1975       Vancouver       p Joseph A. Marion Jr.        1970-1977       Ottawa          c h Edward W. Proctor           1970            Washington DC   i c h Henry A. Lagasse*           1971-1975       Montreal        h p Goodwin Cooke*              1971-1972       Kingston        p j Donald V. Hester            1971-1973       Quebec City     c Charles T. Pooley           1971-1973       Toronto         p John K. Allen Sr.           1971-1974       Ottawa          c j Seymour Chalfin*            1971-1974       Ottawa          j Chester J. Pavlovski        1971-1975       Halifax         c Cleveland C. Cram           1971-1975       Ottawa          c h p j Paul L. Aylward Jr.*        1971-1975       Montreal        i c p Charles E. Wood             1971-1977       Ottawa          j William L. Richardson       1971-1983       Toronto         c j Marvin D. Green             1972-1974       Montreal        p Rufus Z. Smith              1972-1974       Washington DC   p Nelson Bardecio             1972-1974       Toronto         j Goodwin Cooke*              1972-1975       Ottawa          p j John H. Stutesman Jr.*      1972-1975       Vancouver       p Richard W. Ruble Jr.        1972-1975       Montreal        h p David J.S. Manbey           1972-1976       Halifax         i c p Ronald A. Gaiduk*           1972-1976       Ottawa          p j William M. Johnson Jr.*     1972-1976       Ottawa          c p Emerson M. Brown            1973-1974       Washington DC   i p Robert L. Charlton          1973-1974       Winnipeg        p David L. Boerigter*         1973-1974       Montreal        p Elizabeth J. Harper*        1973-1974       Montreal        i p Robert L. Funseth*          1973-1974       Ottawa          p j Inez L. Pulver              1973-1975       Calgary         i p J. Raymond Ylitalo          1973-1976       Toronto         i c p h j Walter C. McCabe            1973-1976       Ottawa          c h p Edward R. O'Connor          1973-1977       Ottawa          i c p Daroslav S. Vlahovich       1973-1978       Winnipeg        i c p Richard H. Reynolds         1973-1979       Ottawa          j Emilio Garza                circa 1974      n.a.            c j Virginio Gonzales           circa 1974      n.a.            c j William J. Porter*          1974-1976       Ottawa          h p William H. Anthony          1974-1976       n.a.            i c  Joseph A. Burton            1975- n.a.      n.a.            h j John A. Froebe Jr.*         1975-1976       n.a.            i Verne Lyon                  1975-1976       n.a.            c j David W. Burgoon            1975-1978       Vancouver       i c h p F. Pierce Olson             1975-1978       Toronto         i c p Stacy B. Hulse Jr.          1975-1978       Ottawa          c h p j Francis T. McNamara*        1975-1979       Quebec City     i c p h Richard D. Vine*            1976-n.a.       Washington DC   h p John H. Rouse Jr.*          1976-1978       Washington DC   h p Carl J. Clement             1976-1978       Washington DC   i c h p Joseph C. Bernard           1976-1978       Ottawa          c p j Hobart Luppi                1976-1979       Vancouver       c h p Stephen Winsky              1976-1979       Ottawa          i c h p Thomas O. Enders*           1976-1979       Ottawa          i c h p Robert W. Duemling*         1976-1980       Ottawa          h p Clyde G. Hess               1977-1979       Ottawa          i c h p James A. Placke             1977-1979       Ottawa          c Robert S. Ayling            1977-1979       Halifax         c William H. Anthony          1977-1979       Montreal        c h p Patrick T. O'Connor         1977-1981       Montreal        i c p Robert L. Moore             1977-1982       Ottawa          i Frank Marcheselli           1978            Tsawassan       j Richard Childers            1978            Tsawassan       j Zygmunt Nagorski*           1978            New York City   i c h John K. Knaus               1978-1981       Ottawa          c h Emil G. Lindahl             1979-1980       Ottawa          c p J. Gwyn Morgan              1979-1980       n.a.            c h Thomas E. Cusack            1979-1980       Montreal        i Alan B. Latimer             1979-1981       Quebec City     c Lloyd M. Rives*             1979-1981       Montreal        i p h George W. Jaeger*           1979-1983       Quebec City     i c h p Raymond W. Seefeldt         1979-1983       Ottawa          i c j Eleanor Lowenkron           1980            Baltimore, MD   h Bernie T. Marquis Jr.*      1980-1982       Vancouver       c p John P. Marx                1980-1982       Ottawa          c John C. Bishop              1980-1982       Ottawa          c p Richard L. Wilson           1980-1982       Calgary         i p Wingate Lloyd*              1980-1982       Washington DC   c Leonard J. Holsey           1981-1982       Vancouver       c p Lillian P. Mullin           1981-1984       Winnipeg        c p Jerard M. Paden             1982            Ottawa          i p Robert P. Jackson           1982-1984       Montreal        i c John W. Bligh               1982-1985       Ottawa          i c p j Scott Barnes                1983            Hawaii          j John Stein                  1983            n.a.            j Gene Wilson                 1983            n.a.            j George W. Jaeger*           1983-1984       Ottawa          i c h p Hugh F. Williams            1983-1984       Quebec City     c George W. Ogg*              1983-1985       Vancouver       i c Peter A. Bogatyr            1983-1987       Ottawa          c j Victor A. Abeyta            1985-1986       Winnipeg        i p John E. Hall*               1985-1987       Ottawa          c Richard B. Gadd             1986            Rouyn           c h j George Buchanan             1986-1988       Toronto         c Jerry G. Prehn              1986-1989       Ottawa          c p John E. Hall*               1987-1989       Toronto         c George F. Heritage          1988-1990       Ottawa          c p David L. Boerigter*         1988-1990       Montreal        p Paul T. Riley               1988-1991       Montreal        p Donald E. Nuechterlein      1989            Kingston        i c p Micaela A. Cella            1989-1991       Montreal        p Richard M. Brennan          1990            Ottawa          c h p j Raymond R. Baca             1990-1993       Toronto         c Robert E. Brown             1992-1994       Ottawa          c John J. La Mazza            1992-1994       Ottawa          i c H. Clarke Rodgers, Jr.      1994            Quebec City     p 
    Official classification as an intelligence officer is the surest evidence that a person has been in the espionage business, and more sources of information means less doubt about it. For example, Donald Coster appears as a spy in an exposee of CIA staff, in several histories of espionage, in his own Who's Who in America biography, and in his Princeton alumni reunion records. Coster was without doubt a spy. On the other hand, surmise based on career postings is probably the weakest evidence of espionage. For example, Isabelle Pinard has not been listed anywhere as an intelligence agent, but in 1938 she was posted to Warsaw, in 1939 to Madrid, then a major center of espionage activity, and from 1942 to 1945 to Bern, Switzerland, which was then Allen Dulles's OSS headquarters for Central Europe. Pinard was probably a spy. Sometimes surmise based on career records is even weaker. For example, the US State Department's 1974 Biographic Register has dramatically brief entries for two supposed diplomats posted to Canada: 1) Charles T. Pooley was 58 years old and had an S-4 position in Toronto, and 2) Robert L. Charlton was 42 and had an S-4 position in Winnipeg. That's all. Name, age, but none of the usual long listing of education, military service, and cities of assignment. Robert T. Dumaine and Charles T. Englehart in the same Register have similarly brief biographies, and both of them have been identified as espionage officers in other sources.

    Establishing that people have been spies and that they were in Canada is relatively easy. Establishing that they were engaged in espionage while in Canada, or that their activities were subversive of Canadian interests, that is more difficult. For example, we do not yet know what Coster was doing in Quebec in the 1930s and 1950s. There is an enormous amount of history waiting to be written, and much of the work must be done in the library. There is plenty in the books to see, for anyone willing to look. According to Ray, Schaap, Van Meter, and Wolf's book, Dirty Work 2, the CIA helped fund and direct the World University Service (WUS) in the 1950s. Canadian university newpapers record that WUS arranged free Canadian student trips to East Block countries, apparently as cover for US espionage. According to Lee and Shain's book, Acid Dreams, OSS operative Alfred Hubbard introduced LSD into Canada, and Dr. E. Cameron was recruited to do the CIA's LSD experiments at McGill University. According to Mount's book, Canada's Enemies, US pollster Oliver Quayle worked for the Liberal Party in the 1965 elections but reported to the White House. According to Littleton's book, Target Nation, and to Cleroux's book, Official Secrets, FBI agent Warren Hart was a covert provocateur trying to turn Canadian native groups towards terrorism and civil disorder. According to the Covert Action Information Bulletin and to the Winnipeg Free Press, William Richardson was a CIA agent engaged in industrial sabotage to frame union activists at the Douglas Aircraft plant. According to Canadian Covert Activity Analyst, CIA agents John Stein and Gene Wilson told former CIA agent Scott Barnes that the September 1, 1983, burglary of the Liberal Party headquarters was CIA work.

    Sometimes more complete stories can be found in the library sources. For example, Knowlton Nash in his book, Kennedy and Diefenbaker: Fear and Loathing Across the Undefended Border, describes how Charles Kiselyak (misspelled Kisseljak by Nash) subverted Canadian Air Force Wing Commander Bill Lee to orchestrate a campaign against Prime Minister Diefenbaker because he refused to accept US nuclear warheads. Kiselyak also hosted informal parties for Canadian reporters at his home on 2085 Woodcrest Avenue in Ottawa. Twenty or more would meet for spaghetti and beer in Kiselyak's basement recreation room and listen to anti-Diefenbaker propaganda from US Ambassador Merchant or other embassy intelligence officers. Arch MacKenzie and Charles Lynch were two Canadian reporters who participated. On February 5, 1963, the Diefenbaker government fell. Kiselyak was assigned as the US embassy's link to the Liberal Party election campaign. President Kennedy's friend and pollster Lou Harris, under the pseudonym of Lou Smith, advised the Liberals. They won the election. On December 31, 1963, the first US nuclear warheads arrived at the Canadian Bomarc missile site near North Bay.

    Even more telling is the account we can piece together of George Jaeger's activities. According to the State Department's Biographic Register and to Who's Who in CIA, Jaeger was born in Austria and became a US citizen in 1944 when he began working for the US Army's Counter-Intelligence Corps. In 1950, he completed an MA degree from Harvard University and was hired by the US State Department as an "intelligence research analyst." In 1952, he was classified as an "intelligence officer" and in 1953 as an "intelligence research specialist." He worked in front-line positions in Yugoslavia and Germany. In 1973, he had a year of study at the National War College. In August 1979, nine months before Quebec's referendum on sovereignty-association, Jaeger became US consul general in Quebec City.

    According to Lisee's book, In the Eye of the Eagle, Jaeger "quickly inserted himself in the information pipeline. Almost every evening he had guests from political, economic, and social circles over to his house" (p.225). From PQ cabinet ministers to a group of ordinary people, "to take the pulse of the population at large," he said. Jaeger also arranged to routinely receive from Jacques Parizeau's Ministry of Finance secret cabinet documents about Quebec's expropriation of General Dynamics' asbestos mines. Lis‚e concluded from this:

    "With such quantity and quality of information, it was understandable that Washington had no need for CIA agents in Quebec" (p.211).This would be laughable if it were only about asbestos. In December 1979, in a private meeting, Premier Levesque explained to Jaeger that the PQ's ultimate goal was not sovereignty-association but independence. In January 1980, Jaeger advised the PQ on how best to manage US public opinion prior to the referendum, and the PQ followed his plan. In April 1980, Jaeger informed the PQ that US Secretary of State Cyrus Vance was coming to Ottawa and would make a strong statement against a YES vote. Jaeger was upset by this, panicky. Said Claude Morin, "Jaeger seemed, at that moment, to be taking our side" (p.231). Jaeger conspired with the PQ government to feed false reports into the US State Department in order to stop the Vance statement. It worked. Said Jaeger, "I saved the day" (p.235).

    Lisee also obtained a secret 1977 National Security Council document entitled "The Quebec Question". It predicted that the PQ government would go to the voters for a "mandate to negotiate sovereignty association" (p.161). That was the wording in a secret US intelligence document written two and a half years before the referendum. Lisee called it a lucky guess. The document also predicted that Quebec independence would "probably inexorably in time" lead to the disintegration of Canada and to provinces one by one joining the United States. However, on May 20, 1980, Canadians voted to remain Canadians. Jaeger's cablegram to Washington on the referendum loss said that Quebec sovereignty "was no longer an option --at least for the time being" (p.242).

    After the 1980 US election of Ronald Reagan and his aggressive, right-wing administration, Jaeger seemed a changed personality, as though he no longer had to muzzle himself. In December 1980, James Donovan of the PQ's division responsible for US relations complained, "Jaeger is dictating what we can and cannot do here" (p.257). Said another PQ official, "I had the impression that he had his own agenda and that he had a kind of plan, a script [for Quebec]" (p.259). Jaeger was most concerned to purge the PQ of its progressive left-wing, to forge a more acceptable neo-conservative, separatist movement. Another US political force favouring right-wing separatism in Quebec was Senator Jesse Helms and his advisor James Lucier.

    Helms is now chairman of the powerful Senate Foreign Relations Committee. In the summer of 1995, his man, Michael Murphy, helped put the right-wing Harris government into power in Ontario. In the autumn of 1995, a second referendum on Quebec separation was arranged by Jacques Parizeau. Lis‚e was his political advisor. Canadians again voted to remain Canadians, but just barely. We will soon have a third referendum on separation. Unfortunately, the Quebec slogan, "Je me souviens", does not include any of this history of US espionage. It is still taboo and very widely unseen.'

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