|United States of America's efforts to screw Canada.|
The following should bring us up to speed on this matter a generation ago.
For more recent efforts we are best, needless to say, to rely on forthcoming information from The Guardian & Mr. Snowdon.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF
UNSEEN ESPIONAGE IN CANADA
By Floyd W. Rudmin
Dept. of Psychology
University of Tromso
Tromso, Norway N-9037
In Canada: 9 Gibson Ave.
Kingston, Ont. K7L 4R1
Draft of July, 1996
The best place, and certainly the easiest place, to find US spies in Canada is in the library. No, not lurking behind the book shelves or hiding under the tables. Look in the books. Look in the US State Department's personnel directories. Look in exposes of the CIA. Look in newspaper indexes, in computer data bases, in books of contemporary history, and you will find signs of US espionage. The spies will spill off the pages. In fact, there are so many, and they are so easy to identify, it is a wonder that Canadians can't see them. We must have some taboos about US spooks, or maybe we suffer a pernicious form of political politeness. But spies don't disappear just because we won't see them.
For example, who's heard of James Wickes Taylor? According to Hutchison's book, The Struggle for the Border, and to Miller's book, Spying for America, Taylor was a special agent dispatched by US President Grant in 1869 for covert operations during the Metis rebellion in Manitoba. Taylor was to encourage western separatism and eventual annexation by the US. His instructions from Secretary of State Hamilton Fish were:
"All your proceedings under this commission are to be strictly confidential, and under no circumstances will you allow them to be made public. This injunction includes the fact of your appointment."It is not known if Taylor worked with William O'Donoghue, a US annexation agitator in the Riel camp, but Taylor did persuade the St. Paul, Minnesota, Chamber of Commerce to pass a resolution declaring that all of the continent west of the Great Lakes belongs to the United States. In response to this, the US Senate resolved that the US should try to outbid Canada for the purchase of the western lands from the Hudson Bay Company. Other Senate proposals included building a railway spur to the border and opening US mail service to Winnipeg. Senator Alexander Ramsey asked for $25,000 to support the Metis in their resistance to Canada. Clearly, Oliver North, planned deniability, and the funding of Contras are not new ideas in the US.
Preston's book, The Defence of the Undefended Border, is full of spies that he found in US military archives and libraries. From 1880 to 1928, US military officers were routinely given "Hunting and Fishing Leave" as a cover for espionage in Canada. For example, in 1886, Capt. William Manning reconnoitered Sault Ste. Marie, and Robert O'Bryne filed an intelligence report on the strength of Canadian militia units. That same year Brig.-Gen. Thomas Wilson reported on the Canadian railroad system. In 1887, the US began sending routine reconnaissance patrols into Canada to make military maps. Lt. George Scriven described Canadian fortifications in Kingston and Toronto, and Lt. Andrew Rowan reported on Canadian militia performance during the Northwest Rebellion. In 1889, Brig.-Gen. John Gibbon reported on Canadian defences in the Puget Sound area, and Dr. Lewis Balch submitted intelligence reports on Montreal, including maps and sketches for a US invasion route along the Richelieu River. That same year, Lt. Rowan filed a 48-page report on the CPR between Lake of the Woods and Calgary, with a focus on connecting lines that might be used by US invasion forces. In 1890, Lt. Rowan was sent to the west coast to spy on defences in Victoria, Nanaimo, New Westminster, and Vancouver, and a Capt. Mills was sent to the east coast to spy on defences in Halifax.
In 1895, Brig.-Gen. Thomas Vincent, commander of military intelligence, registered new information obtained in courtesy from the Canadian Militia Department. In 1896, he went himself to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and soon after sent the Secretary of War a plan to invade Canada. In 1897, Rowan became head of the Military Information Division's Frontier Section and was sent to spy on the defences at the Canadian naval base at Esquimalt. He studied the fortifications from various vantage points, paddled around them in a boat, and questioned local hotel staff. That same year, after deepening the Erie Canal so that torpedo boats could be moved into the Great Lakes, the US Army Engineers requested and received permission from Canada to survey a commercial canal route from Lake Champlain to the St.Lawrence River. The British Admiralty thought the real mission was to gather information for a major invasion route to Montreal. It seems that only Canadians are blind to obvious signs of US espionage.
Two important military spies presented in Preston's book were the brothers Daniel and Henry Taylor, one in the US Army and the other in the Navy. In 1881, Daniel surveyed and mapped the St.Lawrence River region and in 1886 traveled from Manitoba to Cornwall, Ontario, looking for key points at which to cut Canadian railway lines. He subsequently became head of US military intelligence, and his older brother Henry became head of the US Naval War College, responsible for naval war planning. In 1896, Capt. Taylor urged the Secretary of Navy to prepare plans for war on Canada, and Commodore Gridley was given the task under Taylor's supervision. Gridley's espionage was to be done in strictest secrecy, with no sketching or activity that might attract attention. He reconnoitered Canadian defences from Kingston to Niagara and recruited Albert Crandall, a US Naval Academy graduate working for an insurance company in Toronto, to spy on Canadian shipping activity. Capt. Taylor personally reconnoitered the Canadian border from Detroit to Massena, NY, seeking good crossing points for US invasion forces. US Secretary of War, Redfield Proctor, some years later at a dinner party, claimed that the US invasion plan had called for a surprise attack simultaneous with the declaration of war, just as Japanese were to do to the US at Pearl Harbor.
At the turn of the century, as the US became a more belligerent nation, espionage in Canada expanded to include political spying by US diplomats, as chronicled in Mount's book, Canada's Enemies: Spies and Spying in the Peaceable Kingdom. For example, at the onset of the Spanish-American War, US consular officers and US Secret Service agents violated Canadian neutrality by intercepting Canadian mail and by burglarizing the homes of foreign diplomats. Preston's, Defence of the Undefended Border, shows more plans for war on Canada and more military spying. In 1900, Lt. D.F. Skelters was sent by the US Naval Intelligence Office to confirm Rowan's 1897 report on Esquimalt. In 1902, President Roosevelt sent Capt. W.P. Richardson to gather intelligence along the disputed Alaska boundary. In 1904, the US consul general in Ottawa collected maps for the US Army War College. As described in my own book, Bordering on Aggression, US war games in northern New York in 1908 and 1910 practiced for war with Canada. In 1913, Lt.-Col. Thomas Dugan prepared a 97-page military geography of Quebec and Ontario as part of an invasion plan, with particular focus on the weakness and unpreparedness of Canadian forces. He recommended that invasion forces attack across the St.Lawrence River using pontoon bridges and urged that reconnaissance officers survey the river for appropriate sites. Military survey work was reported later that year in up-state New York newspapers. In 1914, Lt.-Col. B.H. Fuller of the US Marine Corps prepared an invasion plan containing new intelligence reports on Canadian militia. The 1916 invasion plan called for six Army divisions to make long west-to-east sweeps across Ontario and Quebec. This is all in the library. Who would have thought, eh?
In 1917, more than two years late, the US finally entered WWI in alliance with England, France, and Canada. Now that we had become military allies, US espionage in Canada probably stopped, right? Wrong. In 1919, US Army Intelligence requested from the Chief of Engineers information about the Canadian army and about the geography of the border area, including railroads and highways. A stack of topographic maps was produced with an eye to cavalry, tank, and railway warfare in the Canadian prairie provinces. Also in 1919, Canadian Great Lakes canals were inspected, measured, and targeted. In 1920, Col. J.M. Dunn reported on the roads to Quebec City via North Hatley and Sherbrooke, and Col. H.B. Black and Col. E.D. Peele summarized their reconnaissance observations made in Canada. In 1921, the Army War College collated intelligence reports on Canadian airports and on the locations, call numbers, and power of Canadian radio stations. In 1922, Col. P. Hitt toured Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in order to prepare military maps. In 1924, the US War Department General Staff requested intelligence reports for "the Halifax expedition". The 1924 invasion plan called for four invading armies, one each for the Maritimes, Quebec, Ontario, and western Canada. This plan declared:
"Blue [US] intentions are to hold in perpetuity all Crimson [Canadian] and Red [British] territory gained. The policy will be to prepare the provinces and territories of Crimson and Red to become states and territories of the Blue Union upon declaration of peace. The Dominion government will be abolished. . ."In the same period, US diplomats were collecting political intelligence for the US government. For example, in 1921, Joseph Brittain, US consul general in Winnipeg, reported on the Workers' Alliance of Winnipeg. Fred Slater, US consul in Fort William and Port Arthur (now Thunder Bay), monitored Canada's Ukrainian community. Francis Stewart, US consul in Niagara Falls, spied on labour leaders Oscar Ryan and Tim Buck. William Chapman, US consul in North Bay, hired Rev. Edwin Kyllonen of Kirkland Lake to spy on Finnish worker groups in Timmins. In 1924, US diplomats Albert Halstead in Montreal and John Foster in Ottawa were instructed by Leland Harrison to spy on the new Soviet diplomatic mission to Canada. In December 1930, the US naval attach‚ in Ottawa reported on the deployment of Canadian aircraft and concluded that "Canada had no idea of trouble with any other country."
Earlier in 1930, in May, the US Secretary of War and Secretary of Navy had approved War Plan Red. The objective, set in bold type, was "ULTIMATELY, TO GAIN COMPLETE CONTROL OF CRIMSON [Canada]." The plan was amended in 1934 to authorize the immediate first-use of poison gas against Canadians and in 1935 to destroy Halifax, Montreal, and Quebec City by strategic bombing if they could not be captured. Also in 1935, a special reconnaissance mission was sent to Labrador and the Hudson Bay area to look for airfields with military capabilities. Also in 1935, Congress appropriated $57 million dollars to build three air bases for pre-emptive strikes on Canadian air fields. Brig.-Gen. Charles Kilbourne and Army Air Force Commander F.M. Andrews told the House Military Affairs Committee that the base in the Great Lakes region was to be camouflaged as a civilian airport and was to be "capable of dominating the industrial heart of Canada, the Ontario Peninsula." Also in 1935, the US held its greatest peace-time military manoeuvres in history, with 36,000 troops converging on the border south of Ottawa and another 15,000 held in reserve in Pennsylvania, all to practice for a motorized invasion of Canada. These last two events were in the New York Times, May 1 and August 18, 1935. Copies of War Plan Red have been available since 1974 from the US National Archives for a fee of $25. None of this history is hidden; it is just unseen.
In 1928, "Hunting and Fishing Leave" was discontinued as cover for espionage in Canada, and in 1929, War Department planning staff were ordered not to cross the border for reconnaissance since the danger of discovery was too high. But with accelerated military planning against Canada, it seems likely that other types of agents must have been in place. The following men were likely US intelligence agents in that era, based on their backgrounds, on their assignments in Canada, and on apparent espionage activity during WWII. Again, this is all in the library, most of it published in the US State Department's 1946 Biographic Register:
- William Perry George attended the US Naval Academy and then worked for the US Geological Survey, the government agency that makes topographic map. He then joined the US Foreign Service, and from 1925 to 1928, he was posted to Riviere du Loup on the St. Lawrence River above Quebec City, then a target for US invasion planning. During WWII, he was posted to Spain which as a neutral country with a fascist government was a focus of US espionage activity. From 1946 to 1947, he was in Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
- Walter Joseph Linthicum worked four years for the US Geological Survey before he joined the Army in 1916 to serve in Mexico. In 1919, he joined the Foreign Service and from 1926 to 1928 was posted back and forth, back and forth, between Sherbrooke and Riviere du Loup, both of which were ideal sites for reconnoitering land and sea routes to Quebec City. At the start of WWII, he was posted to Kaunas, Lithuania, where he witnessed its conquest by the Soviet Union. In 1943, he was posted to Lisbon, Portugal, then the most active center of espionage in Europe, according to Brown's book, The Secret War Report of the OSS.
- Herve Joseph L'Heureux served in the US Army from 1917 to 1919, then worked for a Congressman. In 1927, he joined the Foreign Service and until 1936 was vice-consul in Windsor, then considered by US military planners to be a crucial crossing point into Canada. He was next posted to Nazi Germany and from 1941 to 1942 was US consul in Lisbon. In 1942, he became secretary to the US President's special representative in North Africa and chief civil affairs officer in Algeria. Algiers became headquarters for US espionage activity against southern Europe.
- Robert Leland Hunter was a US diplomat in Canada from 1928 to 1934, first as vice-consul in Winnipeg and later in Windsor, both of which were identified as key cities in War Plan Red. During WWII, he was posted to Belgrade, Bucharest, Madrid, and Casablanca, all sites of intensive US espionage.
- Thomas Edmund Burke served in the US Army before attending the Georgetown School of Foreign Service. From 1929 to 1930, he was posted to Niagara Falls, Ontario. His next posting was to Riga, Latvia, which was identified in Troy's book, Donovan and the CIA, to have been at that time a center of US espionage against the Soviet Union. From 1936 to 1940, Burke was in Quebec City. In 1940 and 1941, just prior to the US Pacific War with Japan, he was posted to Osaka , and then to the Japanese Manchurian port of Dairen.
- Donald Quested Coster graduated from Princeton University in 1929 and moved to Montreal to work for a New York investment bank that was buying up electrical utility companies to eventually create the Power Corporation. Coster changed to a job selling advertising on the sides of street cars, a position he held for the decade during which US military planning had a focus on Montreal. In 1940, he became a cook for a US ambulance corps serving the French Army and was captured by the Germans behind their lines. Repatriated, he was next sent in 1941 by the director of the OSS to be vice-consul in Casablanca in the first coordinated US espionage project of WWII. Col. Coster later became executive officer for northern France OSS operations. According to his own Who's Who in America biography, from 1953 to 1956, he was a CIA agent. From 1957 to 1959, he was director of Canadian sales for Raymond Loewy Associates, an industrial design company. He was next in Vietnam as deputy director of the ICA (International Cooperation Administration), and in 1962 he became director of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) in Algeria, then in the throws of a CIA inspired civil war. From 1964 to 1970, he taught counter-insurgency to intelligence officers and Green Beret forces at the JFK Center for Special Warfare.
- Donald Dixon Edgar graduated from Williams College and pursued graduate studies at Columbia University. He joined the Foreign Service and in 1930 became US vice-consul in Kingston, Ontario, home to Canada's Royal Military College. From 1937 to 1940, he was consul general in Geneva, Switzerland, then a center of espionage activity. During WWII, he worked under-cover as a private businessman, but in 1944 was back in the State Department as chief informational liaison officer. From 1946 to 1947, he was chief of the newly created Central Intelligence Group, the immediate forerunner to the CIA. From 1948 to 1964, he worked for the CIA under diplomatic cover in Shanghai, Taipei, Rome, Alexandria, Rio de Janeiro and Marseilles.
- William Alexander Mitchell was born in Calais, Maine, on the New Brunswick border. In 1935, when US military planners were preoccupied with sea and land routes to Halifax, he was posted to St. Stephen and eventually became vice-consul. From 1944 to 1946, he was loaned to the US Navy, but was soon back in the diplomatic corps, serving in France, Japan, Mexico, and finally in El Salvador, from 1960 to 1964. NAMEBASE, a computer data base that cross-indexes names from books on espionage, shows that William A. Mitchell joined the Association of Former Intelligence Officers and, in 1987, worked with other retired spies for the Parvus Company, a private security consulting business.
- Douglas MacArthur, Jr., served for two years in the Army Reserve Corps before being posted to Vancouver as vice-consul in 1935, the same year his father signed approval of the War Plan Red amendment authorizing the strategic bombing of Halifax, Montreal, and Quebec City. Vancouver was at that time also a target of US military planning. In 1937, MacAruthur, Jr., was posted to fascist Italy, and in the early years of WWII, he was in Vichy and Lisbon, both cities of US espionage activity. After the war, his assignments included Belgium in the 1960s during the CIA's intervention in the Congo. He eventually became US ambassador to Iran, again very much involved in CIA activities.
- David McKendree Key served in the US Marine Corps during WWI, and subsequently studied at Harvard, Cambridge, and Georgetown universities. From 1934 to 1935, he was assistant chief of the State Department's intelligence branch, then known as the Division of Current Information. From 1936 to 1940, he was posted to Ottawa. During WWII, he was posted to Rome and later to Barcelona, both cities of US espionage activity.In 1935, 1937, 1939, and 1941, Queen's University in Ontario and St.Lawrence University in New York State, in conjunction with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, hosted a bi-annual "Conference on Canadian-American Affairs". It is remarkable how many of the US participants have records of espionage activity. For example, Calvin Hoover wrote in his autobiography, Memoires of Capitalism, Communism, and Nazism, that he began spying for the US government in 1933 while still a professor of economics. He was one of the original officers for the Coordinator of Information (COI) and became a top OSS and CIA leader. Like Hoover, other participants in these four conferences can also be found in histories of espionage, for example, in Smith's book, OSS, and in Winks' book, Cloak and Gown. The conference participants in question included: Wallace W. Atwood, Samuel F. Bemis, William W. Butterworth, Percy E. Corbett, John F. Dulles, Edward M. Earle, James F. Green, Calvin B. Hoover, Henry D. Jordan, William P. Maddox, Samuel J. McKee, Jr., Wallace Notestein, Max Salvadori, and Jacob Viner.
In 1941, more than two years late, the US finally entered WWII in alliance with England, France, and Canada. Now that we had become military allies, US espionage in Canada probably stopped, right? Wrong. The following is a list of US agents who show signs of espionage activity and who were posted in Canada since 1945. The sources for this listing are: (i) intelligence classification by the State Department's Biographic Register or by subsequent membership in the Association of Former Intelligence Officers; (c) CIA exposes such as Mader's book, Who's Who in CIA, or Agee and Wolf's book, Dirty Work; (h) contemporary history such as Lisee's book, In the Eye of the Eagle, or numerous other books cross-indexed in NAMEBASE, available from Public Information Research (available on World Wide Web or send fax 210-509-3161); (p) postings to cities of known espionage activity or career anomalies such as brief assignments with different US military agencies; (j) journalism as might appear in Macleans, Last Post, or the Toronto Star. A few people listed here were stationed in the US but worked on Canada. When there was conflicting information among several sources on names, dates, or cities of assignment, the Canadian government's Diplomatic Corps directory was considered most reliable. Asterisks * indicate fluency in French:
NAMES DATES CITIES CRITERIA Mary S. Olmsted 1945-1946 Montreal i c p James M. Macfarland* 1945-1948 Montreal i Isabelle Pinard* 1945-1950 Ottawa p Richard M. Herndon* 1946-1947 Montreal i c Terry B. Sanders 1946-1949 Ottawa p Thomas S. Estes 1946-1952 Quebec City p Walter L. Campbell 1946-1955 n.a. c h p Raymond F. de Ladurantaye 1947 Montreal i c p James R. Ruchti 1947-1948 Vancouver c p Henry N. Groman 1948 Ottawa i L. Dean Brown 1948-1949 St.John c h p Albert W. Stoffel 1948-1950 Toronto c p James R. Ruchti 1948-1950 Montreal c p Edward P. Prince 1948-1951 Montreal i c p Ernest de W. Mayer* 1949-1950 Montreal p Philip C. Habib 1949-1951 Ottawa i c h p L. Dean Browm 1949-1952 Ottawa c h p Frederick A. Pillett 1950-1951 Ottawa i George A. Berkley 1950-1951 Hamilton p Arthur P. Allen* 1950-1952 Vancouver i c Ernest de W. Mayer* 1950-1953 Quebec City p George F. Bogardus* 1950-1954 Toronto i c p Dorothy M. Barker* 1951 Montreal i c p Dorothy M. Barker* 1951-1953 Quebec City i c p Xavier W. Eilers 1951-1953 Montreal p George A. Berkley 1951-1957 Ottawa p Borrie I. Hyman* 1952-1953 Toronto i p Gerald Goldstein 1952-1956 Vancouver i c p George W. Renchard 1953-1956 Quebec City p Borrie I. Hyman* 1953-1956 Calgary i p Ernest de W. Mayer* 1953-1956 Ottawa p George R. Phelan Jr. 1953-1956 Niagara Falls i p William D. Broderick 1953-1956 Windsor i p Milton C. Rewinkle* 1954-1955 Kingston p Andrew J. Steele 1954-1956 Ottawa h Elmer C. Hulen 1954-1956 Windsor i c p Frederic S. Armstrong Jr. 1954-1956 Quebec City i p Adolph Dubs 1954-1957 Ottawa c h p Raymond K. Oakley 1954-1957 Calgary i c Ernest E. Ramsaur Jr. 1955 Toronto i c p Tyler Thompson* 1955-1956 Ottawa p Philip M. Lindsay* 1955-1957 Vancouver i c p Delmar R. Carlson 1955-1957 Vancouver p Robert T. Burns* 1955-1958 Vancouver p Milton C. Rewinkle* 1955-1959 Ottawa p Elmer C. Hulen 1956-1957 Halifax i c p Ruth N. Joyner 1956-1957 Ottawa i h William M. Wright 1956-1957 Toronto i c p James A. McDevitt 1956-1958 Ottawa i c Livingston T. Merchant 1956-1958 Ottawa h p Herbert M. Hutchinson* 1956-1959 Niagara Falls i c p P. Wesley Kriebel 1956-1961 Ottawa p Paul C. Hutton 1956-1961 Winnipeg i c p George MacMannus 1957 Ottawa c Joseph W. Scott 1957-1958 Kingston i c h Rufus Z. Smith 1957-1958 Kingston p Donald Q. Coster* 1957-1959 n.a. i c h p Delmar R. Carlson 1957-1959 Ottawa p Isabelle Pinard* 1957-1959 Montreal p Arthur L. Price 1957-1959 Hamilton p Edward J. Thrasher 1957-1960 Ottawa i c p Eugene F. Sillari 1957-1962 Montreal c p Robert J. Tepper 1957-1962 Vancouver i c G. Ryder Forbes 1957-1962 Winnipeg p Xavier W. Eilers 1957-1965 Toronto p Franklin O. McCord 1958 Halifax i c p Balley K. Howard 1958 Chicago c Edward M. Cohen 1958-1959 Niagara Falls c p Tyler Thompson* 1958-1960 Ottawa p Ruth N. Joyner 1958-1962 Washington DC i h Willis C. Armstrong 1958-1962 Ottawa h p George H. Raynor 1958-1963 Vancouver c p Jerome T. Gaspard* 1958-1963 Montreal h p Alan M. Hardy* 1959-1961 Toronto i c p Jo Ann M. Hallquist* 1959-1961 Hamilton i c p Alfred M. Hubbard circa 1959 New Westminster h j William B. Kelly 1959-1960 Kingston p Robert E. White* 1959-1961 Ottawa h p j Eugene E. Champagne 1959-1961 Ottawa p Donald M. Dessert 1959-1962 Ottawa i Nicholas Platt 1959-1962 Windsor i c p Robert Taylor, III 1959-1962 Ottawa i c William Kane 1959-1963 Montreal i c p Rufus Z. Smith 1959-1964 Ottawa p Charles C. Kiselyak 1959-1965 Ottawa h p Moss L. Innes 1959-1973 Ottawa j p Seymour Young 1960s Washington DC h George K. Crowell 1960- n.a. n.a. h Richard A. Neale 1960-1962 Toronto c p Robert H. Frowick* 1960-1962 Montreal i p F. Raymond Senden* 1960-1964 Montreal c p Jules H. Wayne 1960-1965 Ottawa i c Rolfe Kingsley 1960-1965 Ottawa c h p Daroslav S. Vlahovich 1960-1966 Toronto i c p George W. Renchard 1960-1968 Hamilton p Livingston T. Merchant 1961-1962 Ottawa h p Gerald H. Murphy* 1961-1963 Toronto i c p William P. Armstrong Jr. 1961-1963 Toronto i c h p Charles T. Magee* 1961-1964 Windsor c p Sidney Friedland* 1961-1964 Toronto c p Robert D. Yoder 1961-1965 Quebec City i c p Walter J. Mueller 1961-1965 St. John i c h Maynard W. Glitman 1961-1965 Ottawa p Louis A. Wiesner 1961-1967 Ottawa i c h p Paul C. Bofinger 1961-1967 Ottawa p John C. Hawley* 1962-1963 Ottawa i c p Alice W. Clement 1962-1964 Windsor i c James Smith 1962-1964 Washington DC h Richard H. Courtenaye* 1962-1964 Quebec City i c h Willis C. Armstrong 1962-1964 Washington DC h p Joanna W. Witzel (Martin)* 1962-1965 Quebec City i c p John H. Morris 1962-1968 Winnipeg i c p William W. Butterworth 1962-1968 Ottawa h p Harrell K. Fuller* 1963 St. John p Cleveland C. Cram 1963- n.a. Ottawa c h p j William M. Johnson Jr.* 1963-1964 Kingston c p Harrell K. Fuller* 1963-1965 Ottawa p Stephen T. Johnson* 1963-1965 Montreal p Carl J. Clement 1963-1966 Winnipeg i c p Lyman W. Priest* 1963-1966 Montreal i c p William D. Duncan 1963-1966 Ottawa i Chester L. Cooper 1964 Ottawa c h j Sherman Kent 1964 Ottawa i c h p j William H. Sullivan 1964 Ottawa c h p j Patrick McGarvey 1964 Ottawa h j James M. Smith Jr. 1964-1966 Ottawa h p Joseph W. Scott 1964-1968 Ottawa i c h John R. Vought 1964-1968 Ottawa p Richard H. Courtenaye* 1964-1968 Windsor i c h William M. Johnson Jr.* 1964-1969 Ottawa c p Oliver Quayle 1965 Ottawa h Lawrence H. Harris 1965 Washington DC h p George W. Landau 1965-1966 Kingston h p Charles C. Kiselyak 1965-1967 Washington DC h p Frederick S. Quin* 1965-1967 Quebec City i c p Leon A. Shelnutt 1965-1967 Montreal c p Roger A. Provencher* 1965-1967 Montreal h p Samuel J. Hamrick Jr.* 1965-1967 St. John's c Raymond F. Courtney 1965-1968 Vancouver c p Richard D. Harding* 1965-1968 Montreal i c h p j Edward C. Bittner 1965-1968 Ottawa h p Richard J. Slott* 1965-1968 Vancouver i c Sydney A. Stein 1965-1969 Ottawa h p j Harry F. Cunningham* 1965-1970 Quebec City h p Harrison W. Burgess* 1965-1971 Montreal h p William P. Bundy 1966 Ottawa c h Richard J. Dols* 1966-1968 Toronto i p Rufus Z. Smith 1966-1968 Washington DC p Arthur L. Price 1966-1971 Halifax p Robert F. Kelley 1966-1973 Ottawa i c p David L. Boerigter* 1967 Ottawa p Jeffery Gould 1967 Ottawa h p Anton W. DePorte 1967 Washington DC i c h Guido G. Weigend circa 1967 New Brunswick c Eric Frank W. Barnes* circa 1967 Windsor c Raoul Maora 1967 Montreal h Jules R. Kimble 1967 Trois Riviere c John F. Hostie* 1967 Washington DC i c Samuel J. Hamrick Jr.* 1967-1968 Montreal c J. Chapman Chester 1967-1969 Washington DC i c p Vlademar N. Johnson 1967-1971 Calgary c p Charles N. Manning 1967-1972 Hamilton i c Edward W. Doherty 1968 Montreal i c h Oscar H. Guerra 1968-1969 Montreal i c p William L. Richardson 1968-1969 Toronto c j James M. Howley 1968-1970 Washington DC i c h p Joseph W. Scott 1968-1970 Washington DC i c h Warren Hart 1968-1970 n.a. h j Joseph J. Montilor* 1968-1970 Quebec City i p Geryld B. Christianson* 1968-1971 Ottawa i c Leopold J. Leclair* 1968-1971 Ottawa i c p David J.S. Manbey 1968-1972 Ottawa i c p Rufus Z. Smith 1968-1972 Ottawa p John Ordway 1968-1974 Winnipeg c p Borrie I. Hyman* 1969-1971 Ottawa i p Orville K. McLay 1969 Ft. Holabird,MD j W. Kenneth Thompson* 1969-1971 Washington DC i p Milton C. Rewinkle* 1969-1971 Vancouver p Robert J. Jantzen 1969-1972 Ottawa c h p Vladimir I. Toumanoff 1969-1973 Ottawa i c p Adolph W. Schmidt* 1969-1974 Ottawa c h Charles E. Luckett 1969-1974 Toronto i c p William B. Kelly 1969-1974 Winnipeg p Eugene T. Olson 1969-1974 Ottawa i c p Helmut Sonnenfeldt 1969-1974 Washington DC i c Philip F. Fendig circa 1970 Washington DC c h Henry A. Lagasse* 1970-1971 Vancouver h p James H. DeCou* 1970-1972 Montreal p William M. Johnson, Jr.* 1970-1972 Washington DC c p Emerson M. Brown 1970-1973 Ottawa i p Everett K. Melby* 1970-1974 Quebec City i c p j Xavier W. Eilers 1970-1975 Vancouver p Joseph A. Marion Jr. 1970-1977 Ottawa c h Edward W. Proctor 1970 Washington DC i c h Henry A. Lagasse* 1971-1975 Montreal h p Goodwin Cooke* 1971-1972 Kingston p j Donald V. Hester 1971-1973 Quebec City c Charles T. Pooley 1971-1973 Toronto p John K. Allen Sr. 1971-1974 Ottawa c j Seymour Chalfin* 1971-1974 Ottawa j Chester J. Pavlovski 1971-1975 Halifax c Cleveland C. Cram 1971-1975 Ottawa c h p j Paul L. Aylward Jr.* 1971-1975 Montreal i c p Charles E. Wood 1971-1977 Ottawa j William L. Richardson 1971-1983 Toronto c j Marvin D. Green 1972-1974 Montreal p Rufus Z. Smith 1972-1974 Washington DC p Nelson Bardecio 1972-1974 Toronto j Goodwin Cooke* 1972-1975 Ottawa p j John H. Stutesman Jr.* 1972-1975 Vancouver p Richard W. Ruble Jr. 1972-1975 Montreal h p David J.S. Manbey 1972-1976 Halifax i c p Ronald A. Gaiduk* 1972-1976 Ottawa p j William M. Johnson Jr.* 1972-1976 Ottawa c p Emerson M. Brown 1973-1974 Washington DC i p Robert L. Charlton 1973-1974 Winnipeg p David L. Boerigter* 1973-1974 Montreal p Elizabeth J. Harper* 1973-1974 Montreal i p Robert L. Funseth* 1973-1974 Ottawa p j Inez L. Pulver 1973-1975 Calgary i p J. Raymond Ylitalo 1973-1976 Toronto i c p h j Walter C. McCabe 1973-1976 Ottawa c h p Edward R. O'Connor 1973-1977 Ottawa i c p Daroslav S. Vlahovich 1973-1978 Winnipeg i c p Richard H. Reynolds 1973-1979 Ottawa j Emilio Garza circa 1974 n.a. c j Virginio Gonzales circa 1974 n.a. c j William J. Porter* 1974-1976 Ottawa h p William H. Anthony 1974-1976 n.a. i c Joseph A. Burton 1975- n.a. n.a. h j John A. Froebe Jr.* 1975-1976 n.a. i Verne Lyon 1975-1976 n.a. c j David W. Burgoon 1975-1978 Vancouver i c h p F. Pierce Olson 1975-1978 Toronto i c p Stacy B. Hulse Jr. 1975-1978 Ottawa c h p j Francis T. McNamara* 1975-1979 Quebec City i c p h Richard D. Vine* 1976-n.a. Washington DC h p John H. Rouse Jr.* 1976-1978 Washington DC h p Carl J. Clement 1976-1978 Washington DC i c h p Joseph C. Bernard 1976-1978 Ottawa c p j Hobart Luppi 1976-1979 Vancouver c h p Stephen Winsky 1976-1979 Ottawa i c h p Thomas O. Enders* 1976-1979 Ottawa i c h p Robert W. Duemling* 1976-1980 Ottawa h p Clyde G. Hess 1977-1979 Ottawa i c h p James A. Placke 1977-1979 Ottawa c Robert S. Ayling 1977-1979 Halifax c William H. Anthony 1977-1979 Montreal c h p Patrick T. O'Connor 1977-1981 Montreal i c p Robert L. Moore 1977-1982 Ottawa i Frank Marcheselli 1978 Tsawassan j Richard Childers 1978 Tsawassan j Zygmunt Nagorski* 1978 New York City i c h John K. Knaus 1978-1981 Ottawa c h Emil G. Lindahl 1979-1980 Ottawa c p J. Gwyn Morgan 1979-1980 n.a. c h Thomas E. Cusack 1979-1980 Montreal i Alan B. Latimer 1979-1981 Quebec City c Lloyd M. Rives* 1979-1981 Montreal i p h George W. Jaeger* 1979-1983 Quebec City i c h p Raymond W. Seefeldt 1979-1983 Ottawa i c j Eleanor Lowenkron 1980 Baltimore, MD h Bernie T. Marquis Jr.* 1980-1982 Vancouver c p John P. Marx 1980-1982 Ottawa c John C. Bishop 1980-1982 Ottawa c p Richard L. Wilson 1980-1982 Calgary i p Wingate Lloyd* 1980-1982 Washington DC c Leonard J. Holsey 1981-1982 Vancouver c p Lillian P. Mullin 1981-1984 Winnipeg c p Jerard M. Paden 1982 Ottawa i p Robert P. Jackson 1982-1984 Montreal i c John W. Bligh 1982-1985 Ottawa i c p j Scott Barnes 1983 Hawaii j John Stein 1983 n.a. j Gene Wilson 1983 n.a. j George W. Jaeger* 1983-1984 Ottawa i c h p Hugh F. Williams 1983-1984 Quebec City c George W. Ogg* 1983-1985 Vancouver i c Peter A. Bogatyr 1983-1987 Ottawa c j Victor A. Abeyta 1985-1986 Winnipeg i p John E. Hall* 1985-1987 Ottawa c Richard B. Gadd 1986 Rouyn c h j George Buchanan 1986-1988 Toronto c Jerry G. Prehn 1986-1989 Ottawa c p John E. Hall* 1987-1989 Toronto c George F. Heritage 1988-1990 Ottawa c p David L. Boerigter* 1988-1990 Montreal p Paul T. Riley 1988-1991 Montreal p Donald E. Nuechterlein 1989 Kingston i c p Micaela A. Cella 1989-1991 Montreal p Richard M. Brennan 1990 Ottawa c h p j Raymond R. Baca 1990-1993 Toronto c Robert E. Brown 1992-1994 Ottawa c John J. La Mazza 1992-1994 Ottawa i c H. Clarke Rodgers, Jr. 1994 Quebec City p Official classification as an intelligence officer is the surest evidence that a person has been in the espionage business, and more sources of information means less doubt about it. For example, Donald Coster appears as a spy in an exposee of CIA staff, in several histories of espionage, in his own Who's Who in America biography, and in his Princeton alumni reunion records. Coster was without doubt a spy. On the other hand, surmise based on career postings is probably the weakest evidence of espionage. For example, Isabelle Pinard has not been listed anywhere as an intelligence agent, but in 1938 she was posted to Warsaw, in 1939 to Madrid, then a major center of espionage activity, and from 1942 to 1945 to Bern, Switzerland, which was then Allen Dulles's OSS headquarters for Central Europe. Pinard was probably a spy. Sometimes surmise based on career records is even weaker. For example, the US State Department's 1974 Biographic Register has dramatically brief entries for two supposed diplomats posted to Canada: 1) Charles T. Pooley was 58 years old and had an S-4 position in Toronto, and 2) Robert L. Charlton was 42 and had an S-4 position in Winnipeg. That's all. Name, age, but none of the usual long listing of education, military service, and cities of assignment. Robert T. Dumaine and Charles T. Englehart in the same Register have similarly brief biographies, and both of them have been identified as espionage officers in other sources.
Establishing that people have been spies and that they were in Canada is relatively easy. Establishing that they were engaged in espionage while in Canada, or that their activities were subversive of Canadian interests, that is more difficult. For example, we do not yet know what Coster was doing in Quebec in the 1930s and 1950s. There is an enormous amount of history waiting to be written, and much of the work must be done in the library. There is plenty in the books to see, for anyone willing to look. According to Ray, Schaap, Van Meter, and Wolf's book, Dirty Work 2, the CIA helped fund and direct the World University Service (WUS) in the 1950s. Canadian university newpapers record that WUS arranged free Canadian student trips to East Block countries, apparently as cover for US espionage. According to Lee and Shain's book, Acid Dreams, OSS operative Alfred Hubbard introduced LSD into Canada, and Dr. E. Cameron was recruited to do the CIA's LSD experiments at McGill University. According to Mount's book, Canada's Enemies, US pollster Oliver Quayle worked for the Liberal Party in the 1965 elections but reported to the White House. According to Littleton's book, Target Nation, and to Cleroux's book, Official Secrets, FBI agent Warren Hart was a covert provocateur trying to turn Canadian native groups towards terrorism and civil disorder. According to the Covert Action Information Bulletin and to the Winnipeg Free Press, William Richardson was a CIA agent engaged in industrial sabotage to frame union activists at the Douglas Aircraft plant. According to Canadian Covert Activity Analyst, CIA agents John Stein and Gene Wilson told former CIA agent Scott Barnes that the September 1, 1983, burglary of the Liberal Party headquarters was CIA work.
Sometimes more complete stories can be found in the library sources. For example, Knowlton Nash in his book, Kennedy and Diefenbaker: Fear and Loathing Across the Undefended Border, describes how Charles Kiselyak (misspelled Kisseljak by Nash) subverted Canadian Air Force Wing Commander Bill Lee to orchestrate a campaign against Prime Minister Diefenbaker because he refused to accept US nuclear warheads. Kiselyak also hosted informal parties for Canadian reporters at his home on 2085 Woodcrest Avenue in Ottawa. Twenty or more would meet for spaghetti and beer in Kiselyak's basement recreation room and listen to anti-Diefenbaker propaganda from US Ambassador Merchant or other embassy intelligence officers. Arch MacKenzie and Charles Lynch were two Canadian reporters who participated. On February 5, 1963, the Diefenbaker government fell. Kiselyak was assigned as the US embassy's link to the Liberal Party election campaign. President Kennedy's friend and pollster Lou Harris, under the pseudonym of Lou Smith, advised the Liberals. They won the election. On December 31, 1963, the first US nuclear warheads arrived at the Canadian Bomarc missile site near North Bay.
Even more telling is the account we can piece together of George Jaeger's activities. According to the State Department's Biographic Register and to Who's Who in CIA, Jaeger was born in Austria and became a US citizen in 1944 when he began working for the US Army's Counter-Intelligence Corps. In 1950, he completed an MA degree from Harvard University and was hired by the US State Department as an "intelligence research analyst." In 1952, he was classified as an "intelligence officer" and in 1953 as an "intelligence research specialist." He worked in front-line positions in Yugoslavia and Germany. In 1973, he had a year of study at the National War College. In August 1979, nine months before Quebec's referendum on sovereignty-association, Jaeger became US consul general in Quebec City.
According to Lisee's book, In the Eye of the Eagle, Jaeger "quickly inserted himself in the information pipeline. Almost every evening he had guests from political, economic, and social circles over to his house" (p.225). From PQ cabinet ministers to a group of ordinary people, "to take the pulse of the population at large," he said. Jaeger also arranged to routinely receive from Jacques Parizeau's Ministry of Finance secret cabinet documents about Quebec's expropriation of General Dynamics' asbestos mines. Lis‚e concluded from this:
"With such quantity and quality of information, it was understandable that Washington had no need for CIA agents in Quebec" (p.211).This would be laughable if it were only about asbestos. In December 1979, in a private meeting, Premier Levesque explained to Jaeger that the PQ's ultimate goal was not sovereignty-association but independence. In January 1980, Jaeger advised the PQ on how best to manage US public opinion prior to the referendum, and the PQ followed his plan. In April 1980, Jaeger informed the PQ that US Secretary of State Cyrus Vance was coming to Ottawa and would make a strong statement against a YES vote. Jaeger was upset by this, panicky. Said Claude Morin, "Jaeger seemed, at that moment, to be taking our side" (p.231). Jaeger conspired with the PQ government to feed false reports into the US State Department in order to stop the Vance statement. It worked. Said Jaeger, "I saved the day" (p.235).
Lisee also obtained a secret 1977 National Security Council document entitled "The Quebec Question". It predicted that the PQ government would go to the voters for a "mandate to negotiate sovereignty association" (p.161). That was the wording in a secret US intelligence document written two and a half years before the referendum. Lisee called it a lucky guess. The document also predicted that Quebec independence would "probably inexorably in time" lead to the disintegration of Canada and to provinces one by one joining the United States. However, on May 20, 1980, Canadians voted to remain Canadians. Jaeger's cablegram to Washington on the referendum loss said that Quebec sovereignty "was no longer an option --at least for the time being" (p.242).
After the 1980 US election of Ronald Reagan and his aggressive, right-wing administration, Jaeger seemed a changed personality, as though he no longer had to muzzle himself. In December 1980, James Donovan of the PQ's division responsible for US relations complained, "Jaeger is dictating what we can and cannot do here" (p.257). Said another PQ official, "I had the impression that he had his own agenda and that he had a kind of plan, a script [for Quebec]" (p.259). Jaeger was most concerned to purge the PQ of its progressive left-wing, to forge a more acceptable neo-conservative, separatist movement. Another US political force favouring right-wing separatism in Quebec was Senator Jesse Helms and his advisor James Lucier.
Helms is now chairman of the powerful Senate Foreign Relations Committee. In the summer of 1995, his man, Michael Murphy, helped put the right-wing Harris government into power in Ontario. In the autumn of 1995, a second referendum on Quebec separation was arranged by Jacques Parizeau. Lis‚e was his political advisor. Canadians again voted to remain Canadians, but just barely. We will soon have a third referendum on separation. Unfortunately, the Quebec slogan, "Je me souviens", does not include any of this history of US espionage. It is still taboo and very widely unseen.'