|I have been in the semi industry since 1958. Knew the Intel people years ago personally, Dr Bob Noyes, Andy Grove and Craig Barrett.|
I designed a wafer scale computer in 1980, when yield was only 90%. So research was done on dry chemicals to achieve 100% yield. We used ion(graphite) deposition to put a coating of diamond on Yag. Ion deposition equipment is basically 5000 volts from source to target in Argon atmosphere. Layer thickness is very precise and as thin as you want.
We did chemical mechanical polish, and thickness is not precise. So, gate dielectric thickness control is poor for higher cpu clock frequency. Intel semi process has a frequency barrier for many years now. Java has its cpus made by Hitachi. They also suffer frequency barrier in their semi processing technology. So, the whole industry needs to be cautious beyond the two camps of technology, IBM and Taiwan semi.
New semi industry plants in China will all go with ion deposition equipment.The technology of linewidth, 2 nm was achieved by Intel Hillsboro, and 3 nm at MIT Lincoln lab in 1998. The production of 32 nm is still being developed. Ion deposition made 2 nm linewidth and layer thickness easy to manufacture.