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From Dr. Luisa Moreno's November 23, 2011 Jacob Securities Inc. report page 6 :
or from the free file sharing site:
Clays and Clay Minerals
Clay deposits are fine-grained sedimentary soil deposits, containing hydrated silicas of aluminum.
They can be defined as residual clays when formed from the gradual weathering of localized rock
into very fine particles, or sedimentary clays when formed from particles of weathered rocks that
were carried from the place in which they were formed to another, usually by streams of water,
marshes or oceans. Clays are found mainly on or near the surface. Clay minerals belong to the
phyllosilicate (i.e., sheet silicates) group of minerals and are the main constituents of soils.
The minerals have a wide range of particle sizes from angstroms (10-9 m) to millimetres (10-3 m),
in addition to aluminum and silicon, they also contain a variety of other elements, such as iron,
sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and rare earths (including lanthanoids, scandium and
yttrium). Clay minerals are some of the most common products of chemical weathering of rocks
and are the main constituents of the fine-grained sedimentary rocks called mudrocks (including
mudstones, claystones, and shales), which can be found worldwide (Exhibit 1). There are five
dominant clay mineral groups: kaolin, smectite, illite and chlorite, and a mixed layer type mineral.
The kaolin group has three members: kaolinite, dickite and nacrite. The different minerals have
the same chemistry but diverse structures (i.e., polymorphs). The kaolin group is represented by the
formula Al2Si2O5(OH)4. The smectite group comprises several minerals, including montmorillonite,
pyrophyllite and talc. The various minerals differ mostly in chemical content, and the general
formula is (Ca, Na, H)(Al, Mg, Fe, Zn)2(Si, Al)4O10(OH)2 - xH2O, where x represents the variable
amount of water. In the illite group, illite is the only common mineral, and is the main component
of shales and other argillaceous rocks. The general formula is (K, H)Al2(Si, Al)4O10(OH)2 - xH2O.
The chlorite group includes a large number of minerals with different chemical properties. The
general formula is X4-6Y4O10(OH, O)8, where X represents one or more of aluminum, iron, lithium,
magnesium, magnesium, nickel, zinc or rarely chromium, and Y represents mostly aluminum or
silicon, but can also be boron or iron. Mixed-layer clay minerals are the result of interstratification
of different minerals and contain a combination of illite, smectite and chlorite minerals. Clays are
Good luck to all,
PS. Also posted at Argent french financial site