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To: Pogeu Mahone who wrote (15085)4/12/2011 12:36:55 PM
From: Carolyn
1 Recommendation   of 28217
 
How about this?

There is NO WAY that I could have passed this test. If this is what was
expected of them thru 8th grade,
What on earth was their HS ciriculum like?

This sort of re-enforces what I have always thought: We must have
stopped learning in the 7th grade.

Take this test and pass it on to your more literate friends.

What it took to get an 8th grade education in 1895...

Remember when grandparents and great-grandparents stated that they only
had an 8th grade education? Well, check this out. Could any of us have
passed the 8th grade in 1895?

This is the eighth-grade final exam from 1895 in Salina, Kansas, USA
.. It was taken from the original document on file at the Smokey Valley
Genealogical Society and Library in Salina, and reprinted by the Salina
Journal..


8th Grade Final Exam:

Salina, KS - 1895


Grammar (Time, one hour)

1. Give nine rules for the use of capital letters.

2. Name the parts of speech and define those that have no modifications

3. Define verse, stanza and paragraph.

4. What are the principal parts of a verb? Give principal parts of
'lie,' 'play,' and 'run'.

5. Define case; illustrate each case.

6 What is punctuation? Give rules for principal marks of punctuation.

7 - 10. Write a composition of about 150 words and show therein that you
understand the practical use of the rules of grammar.


Arithmetic (Time,1 hour 15 minutes)

1. Name and define the Fundamental Rules of Arithmetic.

2. A wagon box is 2 ft. Deep, 10 feet Long, and 3 ft. Wide. How many
bushels of wheat will it hold?

3. If a load of wheat weighs 3,942 lbs, what is it worth at
50cts/bushel, deducting 1,050 lbs for tare?

4. District No 33 has a valuation of $35,000. What is the necessary levy
to carry on a school seven months at $50 per month, and have $104 for
incidentals?

5. Find the cost of 6,720 lbs. Coal at $6.00 per ton.

6. Find the interest of $512.60 for 8 months and 18 days at 7percent per
annum.

7. What is the cost of 40 boards 12 inches wide and 16 ft long at $20
per metre?

8... Find bank discount on $300 for 90 days (no grace) at 10 percent.

9. What is the cost of a square farm at $15 per acre, the distance of
which is 640 rods?

10. Write a Bank Check, a Promissory Note, and a Receipt.


U.S. History (Time, 45 minutes)

1. Give the epochs into which U.S. History is divided

2. Give an account of the discovery of America by Columbus ...

3. Relate the causes and results of the Revolutionary War.

4. Show the territorial growth of the United States ..

5. Tell what you can of the history of Kansas ..

6. Describe three of the most prominent battles of the Rebellion.

7. Who were the following: Morse, Whitney, Fulton , Bell , Lincoln ,
Penn, and Howe?

8. Name events connected with the following dates: 1607, 1620, 1800,
1849, 1865.


Orthography (Time, one hour)

[Do we even know what this is??]

1. What is meant by the following: alphabet, phonetic, orthography,
etymology, syllabication?

2. What are elementary sounds? How classified?

3. What are the following, and give examples of each: trigraph,
subvocals, diphthong, cognate letters, linguals?

4. Give four substitutes for caret 'U.

5. Give two rules for spelling words with final 'e.' Name two exceptions
under each rule.

6. Give two uses of silent letters in spelling. Illustrate each.

7. Define the following prefixes and use in connection with a word: bi,
dis, pre, semi, post, non, inter, mono, sup.

8. Mark diacritically and divide into syllables the following, and name
the sign that indicates the sound: card, ball, mercy, sir, odd, cell,
rise, blood, fare, last.

9.. Use the following correctly in sentences: cite, site, sight, fane,
fain, feign, vane , vain, vein, raze, raise, rays.

10. Write 10 words frequently mispronounced and indicate pronunciation
by use of diacritical marks and by syllabication.


Geography (Time, one hour)

1 What is climate? Upon what does climate depend?

2. How do you account for the extremes of climate in Kansas ?

3. Of what use are rivers? Of what use is the ocean?

4. Describe the mountains of North America ..

5. Name and describe the following: Monrovia , Odessa , Denver ,
Manitoba , Hecla , Yukon , St. Helena, Juan Fernandez, Aspinwall and
Orinoco ...

6. Name and locate the principal trade centers of the U.S. Name all the
republics of Europe and give the capital of each.

8. Why is the Atlantic Coast colder than the Pacific in the same
latitude?

9.. Describe the process by which the water of the ocean returns to the
sources of rivers.

10. Describe the movements of the earth. Give the inclination of the
earth.


HUH??? Are they kidding??? This is hard to believe....


Notice that the exam took FIVE HOURS to complete.


Gives the saying 'he only had an 8th grade education' a whole new
meaning, doesn't it?!

Also shows you how poor our education system has become and, NO, I don't
have the answers!

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To: Carolyn who wrote (15087)4/12/2011 1:17:06 PM
From: Ken Adams
   of 28217
 
I suppose that exam lends credence to the idea our public schools tend to teach what is currently pertinent.

Many of the terms in that exam are no longer in common usage today. I'm sure this will be the case for our present vocabulary in another century.

Mathematics is already beginning to disappear. High school kids can't add, multiply and certainly can't divide in their head, even simple problems. How many high school kids could count your change at Walmart if the machine didn't tell them what it was? I wonder if this is dangerous...

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To: Ken Adams who wrote (15088)4/12/2011 1:36:18 PM
From: Carolyn
1 Recommendation   of 28217
 
I think good schools do teach math. I know my kids were plotting trajectories, etc. in the 90s. I had algebra II and geometry in high school! My kids were way beyond me.

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To: Carolyn who wrote (15089)4/12/2011 3:37:12 PM
From: Ken Adams
2 Recommendations   of 28217
 
A couple weeks ago I had the cashier at Walmart actually count back my change from a 20 dollar bill. I thanked her for doing that and commented I didn't think many people could even do that. She was, maybe, 50 something years old. She said they don't teach their cashiers how to do it as the machines calculate it and the "kids" would just get it wrong. I said I didn't care if the machine told them, or not, I still liked to have it counted out to me. For a kid to hand me a bunch of bills and a few coins is no assurance they even counted it right taking it from the cash drawer.

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To: Ken Adams who wrote (15090)4/12/2011 3:41:55 PM
From: Carolyn
1 Recommendation   of 28217
 
I agree. I like small stores for this reason.

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To: Lane3 who wrote (15083)4/12/2011 7:04:39 PM
From: Lane3
   of 28217
 
HDL and Immunity
Filed under: Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Cardiovascular Disease, Infections

HDL – high-density lipoprotein – particles are good for you: High HDL levels are associated with lower mortality overall and lower mortality from many diseases – not only cardiovascular disease but also cancer and infection.

People with high HDL are only one-sixth as likely to develop pneumonia [1], and in the Leiden 85-Plus study, those with high HDL experienced 35% lower mortality from infection [2].

Each rise of 16.6 mg/dl in HDL reduced the risk of bowel cancer by 22% in the EPIC study. [3]

In terms of overall mortality, in the VA Normative Aging Study, “Each 10-mg/dl increment in HDL cholesterol was associated with a 14% [decrease] in risk of mortality before 85 years of age.” [4]

This must be surprising to those who think HDL is only a carrier of cholesterol. The lipid hypothesis presumed that the function of HDL is to clear toxic cholesterol from arteries, cholesterol having evolved for the purpose of giving us heart attacks. HDL then brings cholesterol to the liver which disposes of it returns it to the blood via LDL (which evolved for the purpose of poisoning arteries with cholesterol, and giving HDL something to do). (Hat tip to Peter for this formulation of the lipid hypothesis.)

But there is an alternative hypothesis: that infections cause disease, and that HDL has an immune function. This hypothesis would explain why HDL protects against infections and against all diseases of aging.
Immune Functions of HDL

I got interested in immune functions of HDL upon reading an article in ScienceDaily last year (“How Disease-Causing Parasite Gets Around Human Innate Immunity,” Sept 13, 2010). The article states:

Several species of African trypanosomes infect non-primate mammals and cause important veterinary disease yet are unable to infect humans. The trypanosomes that cause human disease, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodensiense, have evolved mechanisms to avoid the native human defense molecules in the circulatory system that kill the parasites that cause animal disease….

Human innate immunity against most African trypanosomes is mediated by a subclass of HDL (high density lipoprotein, which people know from blood tests as “good cholesterol”) called trypanosome lytic factor-1, or TLF-1….

The parasite that causes fast-onset, acute sleeping sickness in humans, T. b. rhodensiense, is able to cause disease because it has evolved an inhibitor of TLF-1 called Serum Resistance Associated (SRA) protein…. T. b. gambiense resistance to TLF-1 is caused by a marked reduction of TLF-1 uptake by the parasite….

To survive in the bloodstream of humans, these parasites have apparently evolved mutations in the gene encoding a surface protein receptor. These mutations result in a receptor with decreased TLF-1 binding, leading to reduced uptake and thus allow the parasites to avoid the toxicity of TLF-1.

“Humans have evolved TLF-1 as a highly specific toxin against African trypanosomes by tricking the parasite into taking up this HDL because it resembles a nutrient the parasite needs for survival,” said Hajduk, “but T. b. gambiense has evolved a counter measure to these human ‘Trojan horses’ simply by barring the door and not allowing TLF-1 to enter the cell, effectively blocking human innate immunity and leading to infection and ultimately disease.”

So HDL is actually an immune particle carrying proteins that poison pathogens. The TLF-1 HDL subclass consists of those HDL particles carrying two anti-trypanosome proteins, apolipoprotein L-1 and haptoglobin-related protein. [5]

Any HDL particle can become an anti-trypanosome defender simply by acquiring and carrying these proteins.

It turns out that HDL can carry a great assortment of immune proteins. The orchestrator of HDL’s immune functions seems to be a circulating plasma protein called phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which forms complexes with immune molecules and then associates with apolipoprotein A-I (the primary HDL protein). PLTP brings 24 different immune molecules into HDL particles, including apolipoproteins such as clusterin (apoJ), coagulation factors, and complement factors. [6] These immune protein complexes add protein but not fat to HDL particles:

Unexpectedly, lipids accounted for only 3% of the mass of the PLTP complexes. Collectively, our observations indicate that PLTP in human plasma resides on lipid-poor complexes dominated by clusterin and proteins implicated in host defense and inflammation. [6]

It looks like HDL may not be primarily a carrier of cholesterol, but rather a carrier of antimicrobial proteins. Its cholesterol and lipids may serve, as the ScienceDaily article suggests, to make the HDL particle attractive to pathogens so that it may enter as a “Trojan Horse.”
HDL-associated immune proteins under strong selection

As pathogens evolve, immune proteins have to evolve. It turns out that apolipoprotein L-1, the immune protein that protects against trypanosomes, is under strong selection in both Africa and Europe.

The version selected in Europe does not protect against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, cause of one of the African sleeping sickness diseases, but the version selected in Africa does. Unfortunately, the African version also increases risk of kidney disease – which may explain why African-Americans have higher rates of kidney disease than white Americans. [7]

So Africans have sacrificed kidney health for greater immunity against sleeping sickness. This suggests that African sleeping sickness may be a relatively recently evolved human disease.
HDL neutralizes toxins

HDL binds bacterial endotoxins, especially lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and neutralizes their toxicity. As a result, people with high HDL have substantially less release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) during infection. [8]

TNF-a is an inflammatory molecule that stimulates the acute phase response to infections. Levels of C-reactive protein are a good index of TNF-a levels, so generally speaking high HDL will lead to low TNF-a and low CRP.
What’s the best HDL profile?

It should be desirable to have more HDL particles. Since each HDL particle is capable of poisoning a pathogen, the more you have, the stronger your immune defenses.

However, the weight of each HDL particle is likely to be an indicator of infection severity. An infection-free person will have few immune proteins to pick up; the HDL particles will be fat-rich and buoyant. But a person with extensive infections will have heavier HDL particles freighted with immune proteins.

Conventional tests in the doctor’s office measure the weight of HDL in mg per deciliter of blood. Since having more HDL particles (which raises the weight) is good, but having heavy HDL particles indicates infection which is bad, mass is not the best measure of HDL status. We would expect the number or concentration of HDL particles to provide a better indicator of health.

Indeed, this appears to be what is observed. The most important determinant of HDL status is the number of HDL particles:

The association between HDL size and CAD risk was abolished on adjustment for apolipoprotein B and triglyceride levels (adjusted odds ratio, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.71 to 1.39] for top vs. bottom quartile), whereas HDL particle concentration remained independently associated with CAD risk (adjusted odds ratio, 0.50 [CI, 0.37 to 0.66]). [9]

Conclusion

HDL particles are “Trojan Horses” that attack pathogens and neutralize their toxins.

If you want to remain free from infectious diseases – which is to say, all diseases – to a ripe old age, it’s important to make your HDL particles numerous.

On Thursday, I’ll discuss ways to do that.
References

[1] Gruber M et al. Prognostic impact of plasma lipids in patients with lower respiratory tract infections – an observational study. Swiss Med Wkly. 2009 Mar 21;139(11-12):166-72. pmid.us

[2] Berbée JF et al. Plasma apolipoprotein CI protects against mortality from infection in old age. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Feb;63(2):122-6. pmid.us

[3] van Duijnhoven FJ et al. Blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Gut. 2011 Mar 7. [Epub ahead of print] pmid.us

[4] Rahilly-Tierney CR et al. Relation Between High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Survival to Age 85 Years in Men (from the VA Normative Aging Study). Am J Cardiol. 2011 Apr 15;107(8):1173-7. pmid.us

[5] Kieft R et al. Mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (group 1) resistance to human trypanosome lytic factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Sep 14;107(37):16137-16141. pmid.us

[6] Cheung MC et al. Phospholipid transfer protein in human plasma associates with proteins linked to immunity and inflammation. Biochemistry. 2010 Aug 31;49(34):7314-22. pmid.us

[7] Genovese G et al. Association of trypanolytic ApoL1 variants with kidney disease in African Americans. Science. 2010 Aug 13;329(5993):841-5. pmid.us

[8] Henning MF et al. Contribution of the C-terminal end of apolipoprotein AI to neutralization of lipopolysaccharide endotoxic effect. Innate Immun. 2010 May 25. [Epub ahead of print] pmid.us

[9] El Harchaoui K et al. High-density lipoprotein particle size and concentration and coronary risk. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Jan 20;150(2):84-93. pmid.us

perfecthealthdiet.com

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To: Lane3 who wrote (15092)4/12/2011 8:19:32 PM
From: Brian Sullivan
   of 28217
 
The data does indicate that a high carbohydrate diet may be responsible for this alarming trend

Girls hit puberty earlier than ever, and doctors aren't sure why

Claudia and Joe's baby girl has been racing to grow up, almost from the moment she was born. Laila sat up on her own at 5 months old and began talking at 7 months and walking by 8½ months.

"All of our friends told us to cherish every moment," Claudia says. "When I started planning her first birthday party, I remember crying and wondering where the time had gone."

Even so, Laila's parents never expected their baby to hit puberty at age 6.

They first noticed something different when Laila was 3, and she began to produce the sort of body odor normally associated with adults. Three years later, she grew pubic hair. By age 7, Laila was developing breasts.

Without medical treatment, doctors warned, Laila could begin menstruating by age 8 — an age when many kids are still trying to master a two-wheeler. Laila's parents, from the Los Angeles area, asked USA TODAY not to publish their last name to protect their daughter's privacy.

Doctors say Laila's story is increasingly familiar at a time when girls are maturing faster than ever and, for reasons doctors don't completely understand, hitting puberty younger than any generation in history.

About 15% of American girls now begin puberty by age 7, according to a study of 1,239 girls published last year in Pediatrics. One in 10 white girls begin developing breasts by that age — twice the rate seen in a 1997 study. Among black girls, such as Laila, 23% hit puberty by age 7.

"Over the last 30 years, we've shortened the childhood of girls by about a year and a half," says Sandra Steingraber, author of a 2007 report on early puberty for the Breast Cancer Fund, an advocacy group. "That's not good."

Girls are being catapulted into adolescence long before their brains are ready for the change — a phenomenon that poses serious risks to their health, says Marcia Herman-Giddens, an adjunct professor at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.

"This is an issue facing the new generation," says Laila's doctor, Pisit "Duke" Pitukcheewanont, a pediatric endocrinologist at Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, who treats girls with early puberty. "Many parents don't know what is going on."

Researchers don't completely understand why the age of puberty is falling, Herman-Giddens says. Most agree that several forces are at work, from obesity to hormone-like environmental chemicals. There's no evidence that boys are maturing any earlier, says Paul Kaplowitz, author of Early Puberty in Girls.

But data clearly show that girls once matured much later, probably because poor diets and infectious diseases left them relatively thin, Steingraber says. Girls' lack of body fat may have sent a message to their bodies that they weren't yet ready to carry a pregnancy, she says.

In the 1840s, for example, girls in Scandinavia didn't begin menstruating until age 16 or 17, says Kaplowitz, a pediatric endocrinologist at Children's National Medical Center in Washington. As nutrition and living conditions improved, the age at first menstruation occurred two to three months earlier each decade. By 1900, American girls were getting their periods at age 14.

Though the age at which girls get their first period has continued to fall slowly since then, the age at which girls begin developing breasts has declined much more dramatically.

Early puberty increases girls' odds of depression, drinking, drug use, eating disorders, behavioral problems and attempted suicide, according to the 2007 report. When these girls grow up, they face a higher risk of breast and uterine cancers, likely because they're exposed to estrogen for a longer period of time.

Early puberty isn't the only way that childhood is changing.

In only a generation, children have become less connected to nature and, in many ways, less free, says pediatrician Chris Feudtner of Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Today's children rarely, if ever, are permitted to roam wild or play outdoors alone, out of sight of watchful, worried parents. Schools are eliminating recess, even as they install vending machines in school cafeterias.

No one should be surprised, Feudtner says, that this generation of children is heavier, less active and more prone to chronic disease and hormonal changes.

"It's very concerning that girls are continuing to develop earlier and earlier," Herman-Giddens says. "We need to look at our environment and our culture, and what we're doing to our kids."

Maturing too quickly
When Laila's parents took her to a doctor, he had disturbing news.

One of the causes for their daughter's precocious development, they learned, could be a brain tumor.

"That's when you have your sleepless nights," says Laila's father, Joe, an engineer.

Although scans showed that Laila did not have a tumor, tests did find that she was maturing at an alarming rate, with the skeletal development of a child several years older. Yet her early maturation was likely to cut short the total amount of time she spent growing, so Laila — who was tall, athletic and slim — probably would wind up much shorter than many of her friends, her father says.

Doctors told the family that monthly hormone shots could stop her breast development and prevent Laila from getting her period. Typically, girls get their periods at around the same ages that their mothers did. Claudia says she didn't begin menstruating until 12.

Given Laila's fear of needles, the prospect of monthly injections seemed too traumatic, her parents say.

by Suzy Parker, USA TODAY

"I'd heard horror stories, about three nurses having to hold down an 8-year-old" to administer the shots, Joe says.

Laila's parents reconsidered after their doctor learned of a newer type of hormone therapy, which is implanted beneath the skin once a year, during minor surgery. Laila, now 9, has since had two of the implants, with no side effects. The family is considering one more implant before allowing nature to take its course. As in most cases of early puberty, doctors have never pinpointed what caused Laila's precocious development.

"She is still our baby," Claudia says. "But to look at her now, and think that she is growing faster than the average, we can't help but to feel like we are being rushed through her primary years."

Why is this happening?
Like Laila's parents, many people wonder: Why is this happening?

While much about early puberty remains a mystery, researchers say that suspects include:

•Obesity. The clearest influence on the age of puberty seems to be obesity, Steingraber says. In general, obese girls are much more likely to develop early than thin ones. And the number of heavy girls is growing, with 30% of children overweight or obese, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says.

Obesity raises the levels of key hormones, such as insulin, which helps regulate blood sugar, and leptin, a hormone made in fat cells that helps regulate appetite, Steingraber says. While leptin may not trigger puberty by itself, research suggests that puberty can't start without it.

Scientists aren't yet sure whether insulin — or the body's problems processing it — is a factor in early puberty, Steingraber says.

•Prematurity. Rising rates of prematurity — which have increased 18% since 1990 — may contribute to early puberty, as well.

Babies born early or very small for their gestational age tend to experience "catch-up growth" that can lead them to become overweight, Steingraber says. Children who undergo rapid weight gain tend to become less sensitive to the hormone insulin, putting them at greater risk for diabetes, Steingraber says.

•Genetics. Studies consistently show that black girls in the USA go into puberty earlier than whites, suggesting a possible genetic difference. Yet Steingraber notes that, 100 years ago, black girls actually matured later than whites. And she notes that black girls in Africa enter puberty much later than those in the USA, even when their nutrition and family incomes are comparable.

Kaplowitz notes that black girls in the USA tend to have higher levels of insulin and leptin. He notes that researchers are trying to figure out how problems in the body's response to insulin, which are more common among American blacks, might also affect the start of puberty.

•Environmental chemicals. A variety of chemicals — found in everything from pesticides to flame retardants and perfume — can interfere with the hormone system, Herman-Giddens says. For example, chemicals used to soften plastic, called phthalates, can act like hormones. In a small study of 76 girls in Puerto Rico, researchers found that 68% of girls who went through early puberty had been highly exposed to phthalates, compared with only 3% of girls developing normally.

Steingraber is also concerned about an estrogen-like chemical, called BPA, or bisphenol A, that is found in hard plastics, the linings of metal cans and many other consumer products. Although BPA can cause early puberty in animals, its role in humans isn't as clear. But studies by the CDC show that more than 90% of Americans have BPA in their bodies.

The National Institutes of Health is funding research to answer questions about environmental causes of early puberty and hormonal changes, says Frank Biro, director of adolescent medicine at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Biro and colleagues are testing more than 1,200 girls for their exposure to chemicals such as BPA, phthalates, pesticides and chemical flame retardants. The National Children's Study, also funded by the federal government, will study 100,000 children, from before birth through age 21, looking at a variety of environmental exposures.

•Screen time. There's no evidence that watching sexy TV images can trigger puberty, but spending too much time in front of the screen can harm kids in other ways, such as causing them to gain weight, Steingraber says.

Preliminary research also suggests that screen time may hasten puberty by lowering levels of a critical hormone called melatonin, whose production is regulated by the daily cycles of light and dark, and which appears to keep puberty at bay, Steingraber says.

•Family stress. Family relationships also may play a role in the start of puberty. Preliminary research suggests that girls may be more likely to develop early if they experience more family stress, or if they don't live with their biological fathers, says Julianna Deardorff, a clinical psychologist at the University of California-Berkeley's school of public health.

yourlife.usatoday.com

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To: Carolyn who wrote (15087)4/12/2011 8:26:48 PM
From: Judi Simpson
1 Recommendation   of 28217
 
The kids today would be lucky to get an education like they got in 1895. I might include some college students I have met also.

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To: Judi Simpson who wrote (15094)4/12/2011 8:41:55 PM
From: LindyBill
   of 28217
 
About 6% of the kids in this country graduated from high school in 1900. My Father made it though 4th grade by the time he was 10, then off to work.

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To: Judi Simpson who wrote (15094)4/13/2011 1:10:59 AM
From: Carolyn
   of 28217
 
As would I. One wonders how some could even graduate college.

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