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To: J_F_Shepard who wrote (26082)4/17/2011 3:54:39 PM
From: Brumar89
1 Recommendation   of 80929
The big Nigerian civil war was BEFORE the first peak.

The oil companies and lacky tyrants destroyed any hope that country had for prosperity...

What a despicable liar you are.


Now let's pick Canada - peak 1973, decline, then rise to a new peak in 2007.

What's your explanation there? What kinda lie can you make up? Canadian civil war? Did "the oil companies and lackey tyrants destroyed any hope that country had for prosperity?"

Finally, be sure to throw in a crack about Jesus to make atheists look stupid.

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To: Eric who wrote (26083)4/17/2011 4:00:37 PM
From: Brumar89
   of 80929
On the airport tarmacs? That they use to project temperatures for hundreds of miles out into the arctic ... where there aren't any temperature measurement points.

Funny most of the warming is taking place where it can't be easily observed or even measured accurately.


Inconvenient Ice Study: Less ice in the ARCTIC Ocean 6000-7000 years ago

Posted on September 8, 2010 by Anthony Watts
Since there is so much worry about the ARCTIC Sea Ice extent this time of year, it is always good to get some historical perspective. According to this study, our current low ARCTIC ice extents are not unprecedented.
From a press release of the Geological Survey of Norway:

Less ice in the ARCTIC Ocean 6000-7000 years ago
Written by: Gudmund Løvø 20. October 2008

Recent mapping of a number of raised beach ridges on the north coast of Greenland suggests that the ice cover in the ARCTIC Ocean was greatly reduced some 6000-7000 years ago. The ARCTIC Ocean may have been periodically ice free.

BEACH RIDGE: The scientists believe that this beach ridge in North Greenland formed by wave activity about 6000-7000 years ago. This implies that there was more open sea in this region than there is today. (Click the picture for a larger image) Photo: Astrid Lyså, NGU
The complete story follows.

PACK-ICE RIDGE: Pack-ice ridges form when drift ice is pressed onto the seashore piling up shore sediments that lie in its path. (Click for a larger image) Photo: Eiliv Larsen, NGU
”The climate in the northern regions has never been milder since the last Ice Age than it was about 6000-7000 years ago. We still don’t know whether the ARCTIC Ocean was completely ice free, but there was more open water in the area north of Greenland than there is today,” says Astrid Lyså, a geologist and researcher at the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU).
Shore features

GreenlandICE COVER: Today, at the mouth of Independence Fjord in North Greenland, drift ice forms a continuous cover from the land. (Click for a larger image) Photo: Eiliv Larsen, NGU
Together with her NGU colleague, Eiliv Larsen, she has worked on the north coast of Greenland with a group of scientists from the University of Copenhagen, mapping sea-level changes and studying a number of shore features. She has also collected samples of driftwood that originated from Siberia or Alaska and had these dated, and has collected shells and microfossils from shore sediments.

SETTLEMENT: Astrid Lyså in August 2007 in the ruined settlement left by the Independence I Culture in North Greenland. The first immigrants to these inhospitable regions succumbed to the elements nearly 4000 years ago, when the climate became colder again. (Click for a larger image) Photo: Eiliv Larsen, NGU
”The architecture of a sandy shore depends partly on whether wave activity or pack ice has influenced its formation. Beach ridges, which are generally distinct, very long, broad features running parallel to the shoreline, form when there is wave activity and occasional storms. This requires periodically open water,” Astrid Lyså tells me.
Pack-ice ridges which form when drift ice is pressed onto the seashore piling up shore sediments that lie in its path, have a completely different character. They are generally shorter, narrower and more irregular in shape.
Open sea
”The beach ridges which we have had dated to about 6000-7000 years ago were shaped by wave activity,” says Astrid Lyså. They are located at the mouth of Independence Fjord in North Greenland, on an open, flat plain facing directly onto the ARCTIC Ocean. Today, drift ice forms a continuous cover from the land here. Astrid Lyså says that such old beach formations require that the sea all the way to the North Pole was periodically ice free for a long time.
”This stands in sharp contrast to the present-day situation where only ridges piled up by pack ice are being formed,” she says.
However, the scientists are very careful about drawing parallels with the present-day trend in the ARCTIC Ocean where the cover of sea ice seems to be decreasing.
“Changes that took place 6000-7000 years ago were controlled by other climatic forces than those which seem to dominate today,” Astrid Lyså believes.
Inuit immigration
The mapping at 82 degrees North took place in summer 2007 as part of the LongTerm PROJECT, a sub-PROJECT of the major International Polar Year PROJECT, SciencePub. The scientists also studied ruined settlements dating from the first Inuit immigration to these desolate coasts.
The first people from Alaska and Canada, called the Independence I Culture, travelled north-east as far as they could go on land as long ago as 4000-4500 years ago. The scientists have found out that drift ice had formed on the sea again in this period, which was essential for the Inuit in connection with their hunting. No beach ridges have been formed since then.
”Seals and driftwood were absolutely vital if they were to survive. They needed seals for food and clothing, and driftwood for fuel when the temperature crept towards minus 50 degrees. For us, it is inconceivable and extremely impressive,” says Eiliv Larsen, the NGU scientist and geologist.

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To: Eric who wrote (26052)4/17/2011 4:04:19 PM
From: Brumar89
   of 80929
3 news stories that anger energy industry

Posted on April 13, 2011 at 12:06 pm by Tom Fowler in Climate Change, E&P, Economics, Environment, Fracking
738 | 3 Share 1 share E-mail .
(Image: Fotolia)

Three pieces of reporting in the energy arena this week have been noteworthy for the ire they’ve created among the industry. While reporters making energy execs angry is nothing new, these reports stand out.

First, USAToday had a story on Monday about U.S. nuclear power plants in earthquake zones. Given the big story in Japan, it makes perfect sense to look into the issue.

There was a bit of an eyebrow-raiser at the top of the piece, however:

The at-risk reactors are the Diablo Canyon Power Plant and San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station in California; the South Texas Project near the Gulf Coast; the Waterford Steam Electric Station in Louisiana; and the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant in North Carolina.

The USAToday piece uses a map compiled by a geographic mapping firm to reach its conclusions. From the map legend is appears STP is indeed in an area that experienced earthquakes — but that was 1.6 million years ago
(note: you have to click on the “layers” button in the upper right corner to see the features that show the seismic zones). There are no fault lines anywhere near the site. And as we noted last month, much of Texas is in a seismic zone rated zero.

That’s not exactly the same thing as a plant sitting on a fault line on the California coast.

Example No. 2 : CBS News’ breathless report Tuesday night about oil spills in the U.S.:

The piece is pretty vague about the source of its spill data, which in itself is a bit of a concern since the primary database for reporting spills casts a very wide net. It’s not unusual to have the same incident — which could range from a gasoline tanker spilling fuel at a service station to the Macondo blowout — listed separately for every source that calls in to report it.

The “34 million gallons spilled in 2010? figure is certainly alarming on its face, but without context like the number or volume of spills in years past, it’s not very helpful. The ubiquitous John Hoffmeister is brought in for an attempt at context, but it’s clear CBS isn’t buying it.

Item No. 3: coverage of the “Cornell Shale Gas Paper.”

In brief, the paper says the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas from shale drilling is much bigger than previously reported because of methane leaking during drilling. Methane is much more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO2, but the Cornell study uses a method that gives methane an even bigger GHG kick than the United Nations uses.

A piece in The New York Times’ Green blog spends most of its time debating the methods for counting the impact of methane as a GHG, but gives little attention to the issue that seems a bit more important: just how much methane is really released through so-called “fugitive emissions.”

Not that the guys at industry advocacy group Energy In Depth should be considered disinterested parties on this, but their response to the report raises a good point about the study’s source for estimating how much methane is lost. Essentially, the source is an article in industry trade journal that notes the fugitive gas issue “is frequently more of a measurement and reconciliation issue than a loss issue.”

There are lots of monetary incentives for producers to hold on to as much of the gas during drilling and production as possible.
Getting a better handle on how much is really lost at the well head — and even the Cornell study admits there could be more solid information on this — seems like the first question that should be asked and answered.

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From: Brumar894/17/2011 4:06:07 PM
   of 80929
Analysts: PDVSA may pay Exxon $3.7 billion

There's a feel good story ...except for those who think commie tyrants are the good guys.

Posted on April 13, 2011 at 3:31 pm by Bloomberg in South America
..By Daniel Cancel and Nathan Crooks
Bloomberg News

Petroleos de Venezuela SA may have to pay $3.7 billion in compensation to Exxon Mobil Corp., the world’s largest oil company, for assets nationalized by Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez in 2007, according to an estimate by Barclays Capital analysts.

A settlement is expected soon from the International Chamber of Commerce in New York, known as the ICC, Barclays analysts Alejandro Grisanti and Alejandro Arreaza wrote in a report today. The World Bank’s International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, or ICSID, is also expected to rule on a case later in the year, the analysts said.

PDVSA will have to fulfill the terms of any settlement “sooner rather than later,” the analysts wrote.

Chavez, who has nationalized assets in the energy, metals, cement and telecommunications industries, faces 16 arbitration cases at the ICSID, according to the Washington-based center’s website. Venezuelan Oil Minister Rafael Ramirez has said that a ruling below $2.5 billion in the Exxon case would be a “victory for the country,” according to the report.

Exxon, the world’s largest oil company by market value, cut the amount it is seeking from the Caracas-based state company last year to $7 billion from $12 billion.

Barclays expects a ruling later this year for Houston-based ConocoPhillips, which also filed a case against Venezuela in the ICSID and the ICC because of nationalized assets.

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To: Eric who wrote (26083)4/17/2011 4:22:59 PM
From: Jorj X Mckie
4 Recommendations   of 80929
This reminds me of the scifi short story by CM Kornbluth "The Marching Morons". In it, they smarter controlling class put speedometers in vehicles the intentionally inaccurately read much higher speeds and made "fast" sounds so that the moronic masses believed they had super fast hot rods, when in fact they were driving at safe speeds.

If they just tell us that it's getting warmer, in spite of our own perception, we will believe it is getting warmer.

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From: Brumar894/17/2011 4:40:53 PM
1 Recommendation   of 80929
Jobs lost don't count as a cost in economic analysis per EPA testimony

Face palm: EPA bureaucrat tap dances during testimony
Posted on April 16, 2011 by Ryan Maue

EPA Deputy Administrator Mathy Stanislaus
Post by Ryan Maue

EPA Deputy Administrator Mathy Stanislaus should be given credit for showing up Thursday to an Environment and Energy subcommittee hearing, but may not be returning any time soon. Let’s just say his performance was cringe-inducing as he spun like a top attempting to deflect the very pointed, and basic yes-or-no questions of Rep. Cory Gardner (R – Colorado). An exasperated Stanislaus even resorted to a face-palm maneuver to regain his rhetorical footing. Of course, YouTube video exists…see below.

It’s clear that the GOP wants to eliminate the EPA’s current attempt/ability to regulate greenhouse gases (CO2) and, here, coal-ash, and is using its newly acquired power in the House to call hearings, demand/compel Obama administration officials to testify, and expose the job-killing nature of the EPA’s regulations. In other words, this is how politics works. The liberal media’s lack of coverage of this “inconsistency” in word versus deed with the Obama EPA demonstrates how in-the-tank the media is for the ’12 re-election. Ideology is more important than jobs.

Right wing outlets are hyping the performance of the EPA deputy as a victory and tacit admission that the EPA greenhouse regulations will kill (civility alert!) jobs. From the DAILY CALLER:

“We have not directly taken a look at jobs in the proposal,” Stanislaus said, referring to a regulation that would govern industries that recycle coal ash and other fossil fuel byproducts.

Coal ash is commonly used to make concrete stronger and longer lasting, make wallboard more durable and improve the quality of roofing shingles…

Gardner pressed Stanislaus as to whether or not EPA had done a direct economic analysis on how the rule would affect jobs, to which Stanislaus replied saying that EPA had not included jobs in its cost-benefit analysis of the rule.

“Do you feel an economic analysis that does not include the complete picture on jobs, is that a full economic analysis?” Gardner asked. “I think it is really a yes or no question.

“To me, I don’t see how you can talk about economic analysis without talking about jobs… and you said that you would not promulgate a rule where the costs would exceed the benefits,” Gardner continued. “But if you are not taking into account jobs, I don’t see how that goes.”

Gardner’s line of questioning had Stanislaus visibly dumbfounded, and he repeatedly told the congressman he would have to get back to him with the answers to his questions.

“I’d like to see a list of all of the rules that you have proposed that haven’t taken into account jobs,” Gardner said. “We need to know if the EPA considers jobs in their analysis and whether you have, and whether EPA’s position is to consider jobs when it does an economic analysis.”

Stanislaus then replied saying EPA considers jobs in all of its economic analysis, but that the form of the analysis is driven by the requirements rules that are under consideration.

The EPA official’s testimony has generated negative reactions from pro-business advocates who say Stanislaus’s testimony shows the agency is out of touch with reality and is indifferent to job creation.

The painful testimony reaches a crescendo at the 3:00 minute mark, when the EPA bureaucrat appears to be looking for an exit. At least Stanislaus showed up. EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson is unavailable for testimony with a fully booked schedule, including her speech Saturday night at the Socialist Youth Climate Conference in Washington D.C. From POLITICO:

House Republicans aren’t happy that top EPA officials are skipping hearings on efforts to roll back the agency’s regulations.

“We could call them the Evaporating Personnel Administration, I guess,” Texas Republican Rep. Joe Barton said Friday. “They don’t seem to ever show up and be accountable.”

“I do find it troubling once again that Lisa Jackson once again is a no show at a very important hearing that she’s had every opportunity to be in attendance,” Barton said. “The MACT truck is about to run us over all and she’s not even here to comment on those regulations.”

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From: Brumar894/17/2011 4:44:42 PM
2 Recommendations   of 80929
“Climate Saving” CFLs Now Found To Emit Deadly Cancer-Causing Vapours

By P Gosselin on 17. April 2011

Shattered eco-dreams. (Photo credit:
I don’t have a single one of these damn things in our house, and I’m glad. Now the German online DIE WELT has a report here called: Energy Saving Lights Emit Toxic Substances.

Hat-tip DirkH

It was already widely known that CFLs released deadly mercury, but only if they broke, see here for example, or here on what to do if one breaks. Now, according to the German television news show “Markt“, which will air tomorrow evening at 8:15 pm, CFLs also emit cancer-causing fumes during their operation, principally phenol, which is highly toxic even in small amounts.

DIE WELT reports that the NDR news magazine selected a random sampling of CFLs from various manufacturers and had them tested by an independent laboratory.

DIE WELT writes:

The official expert for lighting, Peter Braun, confirmed the magazine’s claims that substances can find there way in the air in a room. ‘Of special concern was that all lights that were tested emitted cancer-causing substances while they operated, and these happened to be the substances that occurred with the highest concentrations,’ Braun told the network.”

One manufacturer said they would look into it, while another said they know of no concentrations that are a threat to anyone.

Great! Now we are creating a global Love Canal to make believe we are rescuing the behavior of the atmosphere.

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From: Glenn Petersen4/17/2011 4:52:49 PM
1 Recommendation   of 80929
Regulation of Offshore Rigs Is a Work in Progress

New York Times
April 17, 2011

WASHINGTON — A year after BP’s Macondo well blew out, killing 11 men and spewing millions of barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico, the much-maligned federal agency responsible for policing offshore drilling has been remade, with a tough new director, an awkward new name and a sheaf of stricter safety rules. It is also trying to put some distance between itself and the industry it regulates.

But is it fixed? The simple answer is no. Even those who run the agency formerly known as the Minerals Management Service concede that it will be years before they can establish a robust regulatory regime able to minimize the risks to workers and the environment while still allowing exploration offshore.

“We are much safer today than we were a year ago,” said Interior Secretary Ken Salazar, who oversees the agency, “but we know we have more to do.”

Oil industry executives and their allies in Congress said that the Obama administration, in its zeal to overhaul the agency, has lost sight of what they believe the agency’s fundamental mission should be — promoting the development of the nation’s offshore oil and gas resources. Environmentalists said the agency, now known as the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, has made only cosmetic changes and remains too close to the people it is supposed to regulate.

Even the officials who run it, Mr. Salazar and the new director, Michael R. Bromwich, admit that they have a long way to go before government can provide the kind of rigorous oversight demanded by the complex, highly technical and deeply risky business of drilling for oil beneath the sea.

The blowout preventers in use today remain incapable of handling a well rupture of the force of the BP blast. The containment system developed by the industry to respond to another blowout has not been tested in real-life conditions and, by the industry’s own estimate, could still allow hundreds of thousands of barrels of oil to spew before a runaway well could be capped.

The seven-member commission named by President Obama to investigate the BP accident looked at the regulatory failures that contributed to it, and its conclusions were blunt.

“M.M.S. became an agency systematically lacking the resources, technical training or experience in petroleum engineering that is absolutely critical to ensuring that offshore drilling is being conducted in a safe and responsible manner,” the panel said in its final report, issued in January. “For a regulatory agency to fall so short of its essential safety mission is inexcusable.”

Many of those flaws remain, according to William K. Reilly, a former Environmental Protection Agency administrator who was one of two chairmen of the commission. He said last week that Mr. Bromwich was doing a creditable job, but that the agency still lacked the technical expertise needed to oversee such a specialized industry. “They changed the name, but all the people are the same,” Mr. Reilly said. “It’s embarrassing.”

The job of repairing the agency has fallen to Mr. Bromwich, a former federal prosecutor and Justice Department inspector general who was pressured into leading the agency by Mr. Obama. While defending the employees of the agency, Mr. Bromwich, who took over last June, made no excuses for its past misbehavior, including a scandal at the Denver office that involved agency officials and oil company employees having sex and sharing drugs.

Mr. Bromwich acknowledged that accident rates for offshore drilling were several times higher in the United States than in Australia, Canada, Norway and the United Kingdom, in part because those countries imposed effective new rules after major accidents.

After the Deepwater Horizon spill, the regulatory agency was broken into parts, dividing the revenue collection office from the oversight division to eliminate conflicts of interest. A series of new rules involving well design, spill response and environmental review were imposed. Permitting and production were set back months while the industry absorbed the changes.

But Mr. Bromwich says his agency still lacks the resources, personnel, training, technology, enforcement tools, regulations and legislation it needs to do its job properly. He lays a large part of the blame on insufficient financing.

The bureau’s budget has been basically flat since it was created in 1982, even as drilling activity in the deep-water gulf has drastically increased and the technology has grown more complicated.

“Without more resources, we can keep doing what we’re doing, but we can’t grow,” Mr. Bromwich said in an interview during a recruiting trip to nine West Coast universities, where he was trying to lure young scientists and engineers to apply for relatively low-paying government jobs. “We need more people, and we need new people.”

Mr. Bromwich has asked the Office of Personnel Management to adjust pay schedules so his office can compete with oil companies, which in some cases are paying twice the government salary for petroleum engineers. Mr. Obama has asked for an increase of more than $100 million to the agency’s roughly $250 million annual budget. Congress provided about half that amount in the short-term budget deal reached last week, but discussions have not begun on next year’s budget.

The House is considering three bills that would force the agency to move more quickly on drilling permits, to open vast new areas along the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts to drilling and to reopen lease sales that had been canceled after the Deepwater Horizon spill. A separate bill would ease environmental rules for drilling off the shores of Alaska.

“Much of the legislation that I have seen being bandied about, especially with the House Republicans, is almost as if the Deepwater Horizon-Macondo well incident never happened,” Mr. Salazar said last week. “If another Macondo happened and we didn’t have the ability to contain it, it would probably mean the death of energy development in the nation’s oceans.”

Employees of the remade agency are candid about its persistent shortcomings. At a recent industry-government forum in New Orleans, officials from the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management repeatedly admitted that they could not answer many of the questions and could not account for many of the delays in responding to applications.

Valerie Land, regulatory supervisor at W & T Offshore, complained that agency officials sent back permit plans with questions that had been answered in the applications. Even some simple questions, like whether a blowout preventer would be above or below water, seemed to flummox some officials, she said.

Michael Tolbert, a senior engineer with the bureau, shrugged and said, “We have a lot of new people looking at the plans.”

Randall B. Luthi, a Wyoming rancher who was once a Congressional aide to Dick Cheney, served as head of the Minerals Management Service for two years in the administration of President George W. Bush. He said morale in his former agency is low because of the constant charges of corruption and coziness with industry, accusations echoed last year by Mr. Obama.

Mr. Luthi, who now leads an industry group representing offshore drilling contractors, said the new leadership had centralized much of the decision making in Washington.

The offshore operators Mr. Luthi represents are frustrated with the moratorium on deep-water drilling that has just recently begun to ease, saying companies that had nothing to do with the BP disaster believe that they were being indiscriminately punished. Although he refrained from criticizing Mr. Bromwich directly, Mr. Luthi suggested that the new director was making decisions based on inadequate knowledge and experience.

“They have instituted a lot of changes that would ordinarily require a year of research,” he said. “Here, Interior was forced to announce the changes and then do the legwork.”

The oil and gas industry has, mostly, been cooperating in the regulator’s efforts. Two industry groups helped create systems for capping out-of-control wells like BP’s Macondo, which spewed nearly five million barrels of oil into the gulf over 87 days.

The Interior Department held off granting new deep-water permits until new systems were in place; 10 have been issued since the moratorium was formally lifted in October. An additional 15 deep-water permits are pending.

Representative Edward J. Markey, Democrat of Massachusetts, has been equally critical of industry and government regulators.

“We should be requiring more of the oil companies to continue deep-water drilling than passable response plans, unreliable blowout preventers and a containment system that has only been used once and can’t be deployed past 8,000 feet,” Mr. Markey said.

Rig inspectors, most of whom are from the same towns and culture as the industry employees they are supposed to police, are trying to adopt a more professional stance and no longer accept free transportation and meals from the rig operators.

“They’re bringing their own lunches when they make visits,” said Mark Shuster, Shell’s manager for gulf operations. He described inspections as more effective and comprehensive, but said the agency remained woefully understaffed and apparently lacking in resources to hire enough qualified new talent.

“They need experienced people who really do know what they are doing,” he said.

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From: Eric4/17/2011 8:17:56 PM
   of 80929
Earth had 13th warmest March on record

April 14, 2011

The Earth experienced the 13th warmest March since record keeping began in 1880, as the climate phenomenon La Niña continued to be a significant factor. The annual maximum Arctic sea ice extent was reached on March 7 and tied with 2006 as the smallest annual maximum extent since record keeping began in 1979.

The monthly analysis from NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center is part of the suite of climate services NOAA provides government, business and community leaders so they can make informed decisions.

Global surface temperature Anomalies - March 2011

Global temperature highlights – March

•The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for March 2011 was the 13th warmest on record at 55.78 F (13.19 C), which is 0.88 F (0.49 C) above the 20th century average of 54.9 F (12.7 C). The margin of error associated with this temperature is +/- 0.13 F (0.07 C).

•Separately, the global land surface temperature was 1.49 F (0.83 C) above the 20th century average of 40.8 F (5.0 C), and tied for the 12th warmest March on record. The margin of error is +/- 0.15 F (0.27 C).Warmer-than-average conditions occurred across most of Siberia, southwestern Greenland, southern North America, and most of Africa. Cooler-than-average regions included: most of Australia, the western half of Canada, most of Mongolia, China, and southeastern Asia.

•The March global ocean surface temperature was 0.65 F (0.36 C) above the 20th century average of 60.7 F (15.9 C), making it the 12th warmest March on record. The margin of error is +/- 0.07 F (0.04 C). The warmth was most pronounced in the equatorial Atlantic, the western Pacific Ocean, and across the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes.

Global temperature highlights – year-to-date (January through March)

•The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for the year to date (January 2011 – March 2011) was 0.77 F (0.43 C) above the 20th century average of 54.1 F (12.3 C), making it the 14th warmest such period on record. The margin of error is +/- 0.16 F (0.09 C).

•The year-to-date worldwide land surface temperature was 1.08 F (0.60 C) above the 20th century average — the 21st warmest such period on record. The margin of error is +/- 0.41 F (0.23 C). Warmer-than-average conditions occurred across northern Alaska, far northwestern Canada, southern Greenland and northern Siberia. Cooler-than-average regions included most of Europe, western Russia, Mongolia, much of China, Australia, and part of central North America.

•The global ocean surface temperature for the year to date was 0.65 F (0.36 C) above the 20th century average and was the 12th warmest such period on record. The margin of error is +/-0.07 F (0.04 C). The warmth was most pronounced across parts of the central western Pacific Ocean, the tropical Atlantic Ocean, the North Atlantic near Greenland and Canada, and the southern mid-latitude oceans.

•La Niña conditions continued to weaken in March for the third consecutive month, although sea-surface temperatures remained below normal across the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. According to NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center, La Niña will continue to have global impacts through the Northern Hemisphere spring, but neither La Nina nor El Nino conditions are expected by June.

•The average high temperatures were the coolest on record for March across Australia. The Northern Territory and the state of South Australia experienced their coldest average maximum temperature in the 62-year period of record while Queensland was the lowest on record since 1971. Within the state of Western Australia, the eastern portion had its coolest March on record while its southwest had its warmest.

Polar sea ice and precipitation highlights

•The average Arctic sea ice extent during March was much-below average, ranking as the second smallest March on record, behind March 2006. On March 7, Arctic sea ice reached its annual maximum extent at 5.65 million square miles (14.64 million square kilometers), tying with 2006 as the smallest annual maximum extent in the satellite record.

•The March 2011 Antarctic sea ice extent was 16.2 percent below average and was third lowest for March since records began in 1979.

•Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent during March ranked as the ninth largest on record, while the snow cover extent over North America was the sixth largest and largest since March 1979.

•England reported its driest March in 50 years and fifth driest since records began in 1910. East Anglia—a region in eastern England—had its second driest March on record, behind 1929.

•Average rainfall across Australia was 117 percent above average during March, making it the wettest March on record. In the north, the state of Queensland and the Northern Territory each reported the most March rainfall since records began in 1900. South Australia had its fourth highest March rainfall on record.

Scientists, researchers and leaders in government and industry use NOAA’s monthly analyses to help track trends and other changes in the world's climate. This climate service has a wide range of practical uses, from helping farmers know what and when to plant, to guiding resource managers with critical decisions about water, energy and other vital assets.

NOAA’s mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and to conserve and manage our coastal and marine resources. Visit us on Facebook.

* Included in this report: Based on requests from our users, NOAA is now making it easier to find information in its monthly analyses of global climate about ranges of uncertainty (“range”) associated with its global temperature calculations. NCDC previously displayed this information in certain graphics associated with the report, but it will now publish these ranges in the form of “plus or minus” values associated with each monthly temperature calculation. These values are calculated using techniques published in peer-reviewed scientific literature.

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To: Eric who wrote (26092)4/17/2011 11:07:56 PM
From: veritas501
   of 80929
Is there a connection between these 3 graphs?

1. US Trade Deficit with China


2. China Coal Consumption (notice takeoff in 2000)


3. China's CO2 Emissions

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